This article examines how the work of Paulo Freire and Chela Sandoval can inform historical research in art education. Although a critical historical inquiry inspired by these thinkers does not entail a prescriptive set of guidelines, I identify the following five principles that can inform marginalized histories in art education: acknowledging and deconstructing myths; identifying those who count as historical agents; recognizing events in history as challenges for present actions; situating historical events within a larger fabric of social relations; and acknowledging forms of resistance developed by marginalized groups. I start by situating the work of Freire beyond critical pedagogy, by arguing that when Freire is considered a postcolonial and decolonial thinker, his work can incite critical historical inquiry and methodologies. I draw from the work of Chicana scholar Chela Sandoval to direct attention to the diverse ways in which the oppressed exercise practical and political agency. I seek to add to the array of theoretical resources at the disposal of those interested in identifying how particular histories and educational structures privilege or exclude certain groups, and those wanting to produce knowledge that is politically situated and useful for the transformation of society.