This article focuses on Władysław Broniewski’s political activities in Palestine during his stay there from February 1943 to November 1945. His personal history is presented against a backdrop of the political and intellectual life of Polish refugees in the Middle East. Broniewski, a revolutionary and avant-garde poet who belonged to the left-wing world, is depicted against the backdrop of events and tensions occurring at that time in Zionist communities, as well as in the centers of Polish power—both the communist government in Warsaw and the Polish government-in-exile in London—and the dispute between them concerning the future of Poland. The article presents Broniewski’s friendships and acquaintances during his stay in Palestine. Extensive epistolary material as well as other archival and press sources were used. The article also explores the subject matter of Broniewski’s literary output. The poems he wrote in Palestine are some of his most interesting works, exemplifying the most expressive poetry in the canon of literature written by refugees.