On November 16, 2021, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) released its “IOC Framework on Fairness, Inclusion and Non-Discrimination on the Basis of Gender Identity and Sex Variations.” Often referenced simply as the Framework, the document updated the IOC's 2015 guidance for transgender and non-binary athletes to compete in international sport. The IOC's new Framework came in the wake of several high-profile decisions by International Federations (IFs) and rulings by the Court of Arbitration for Sport that specifically focused on the role of testosterone, fairness, and safety for women athletes.

Outside of the IOC, the issue of transgender athletes in sports has also become a topic of intense debate, not only among politicians and the media, but also in many scholarly circles. On one side of the debate, there are those who argue that transgender athletes should be allowed to participate in sports based on their gender identity. On the other...

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