TITLE IX WAS ONE OF THE MOST TRANSFORMATIVE pieces of federal legislation in sports history. Enacted in 1972 but expanded, modified, and reinterpreted over the ensuing years, it completely transformed organized sports in the United States. Although the funding for and participation of women and men in college athletics has become more equitable today, the pre-Title IX numbers remain staggering. In 1970, only 7 percent of interscholastic (middle and high school aged) athletes were girls.1 That same year, the average American university offered only two-and-a-half athletic programs for women, as opposed to nine for men.2 In 1972, only 15 percent of intercollegiate athletes were women.3 These stark differences were apparent in the funding and resources given to women's sports as well. In 1973, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) spent $2.5 million on their men's athletic department, and a total of $4,500 on the entirety of...

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