An ecocritical reevaluation of the Kalevala and its contexts reveals the merging of nationalist discourses with a broader Finno-Ugric environmental aesthetic tradition in the period leading up to Finnish independence. Although the Kalevala and the nationalism it inspired led to oppression of the Sámi minority in northern Finland, analyzing the Kalevala as a “bioregional” epic in light of the environmental aesthetics of the Sámi joik tradition can potentially heal divisions created by Finnish nationalism.

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