The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

Notes

1 "Protection, Virtue, and the ’power to detain’: the Moral Citizenship of Jewish Women in New York City, 1890-1920," Journal of Urban History 31 (2005): 655-84.
2 "America in the Hand, Homeland in the Heart: Transnational and Translocal Immigrant Experiences in the American West," Western Historical Quarterly 35, no. 3 (Autumn 2004): 331-54.
Val Marie Johnson, "’Arriving for immoral purposes’: Women, Immigration, and the Historical Intersection of Federal and Municipal Policing," in Stacy K. McGoldrick and Andrea McArdle, eds., Uniform Behavior: Localism, Reform, and Police-Community Relationships in Modern America (New York, 2006), 25-54.
3 Donna Gabaccia, "Immigrant Women: Nowhere at Home?" Journal of American Ethnic History 10, no. 4 (Summer 1991): 61-87
"The Transplanted: Immigrant Women and Families," Social Science History 12, no. 3 (Fall 1988): 243-53
Franca Iacovetta, "Manly Militants, Cohesive Communities and Defiant Domestics: Writing About Immigrants in Canadian Historical Scholarship," Labour/ Le Travail 36 (1995): 217-52
Elizabeth Ewen, Immigrant Women in the Land of Dollars: Life and Culture on the Lower East Side, 1890-1925 (New York, 1985)
Susan Glenn, Daughters of the Shtetl: Life and Labor in the Immigrant Generation (Ithaca, NY, 1990)
Rita Simon and Carolyn Brettell, eds., International Migration: The Female Experience (Totowa, NJ, 1986).
4 Johnson, "Defining ’Social Evil’: Moral Citizenship and Governance in New York City, 1890-1920" (Ph.D. diss., New School for Social Research, 2002).
Marc Connelly, The Response to Prostitution in the Progressive Era (Chapel Hill, NC, 1980)
Glenn, Daughters Of The Shtetl
Meredith Tax, The Rising of the Women: Feminist Solidarity and Class Conflict, 18801917 (New York, 1980)
Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven, CT, 1987)
Sara Deutsch, Women and the City: Gender, Space, and Power in Boston, 1870-1940 (New York, 2000).
Iacovetta, "The Sexual Politics of Moral Citizenship and Containing ’Dangerous’ Foreign Men in Cold War Canada, 1950s-1960s," Histoire sociale/Social History 66 (November/novembre 2000): 361-89
Mariana Valverde, The Age of Light, Soap, and Water (Toronto, 1991).
5 Lillian Wald in Proceedings of the First Convention of the National Council of Jewish Women. Held at New York, Nov. 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19, 1896 (Philadelphia, 1897), 260, 261, 265.
Wald, The House on Henry Street (1915; New York, 1971)
Clare Coss, ed., Lillian Wald, Progressive Activist (New York, 1989)
Doris Daniels, Always a Sister: the Feminism of Lillian D. Wald (New York, 1989).
Johnson, "Protection, Virtue, and the ’power to detain.’ "
Faith Rogow, Gone to Another Meeting: The National Council of Jewish Women, 1893-1993 (Tuscaloosa, AL, 1993)
Linda Gordon Kuzmack, Woman’s Cause: The Jewish Woman’s Movement in England and the United States, 1881-1933 (Columbus, OH, 1990).
CJW (224-40).
6 G. K. Turner, "Tammany’s Control of New York City by Professional Criminals," McClure’s (June 1909): 117-34
S. S. McClure, "The Tammanyizing of Civilization," McClure’s (November 1909): 117-28
Turner, "The Daughters of the Poor," McClure’s (November 1909): 45-61
Henry A. Chaney, "Alien Suffrage," Michigan Political Science Association 1 (1894): 130-39.
Amy Bridges, A City in the RepublicAntebellum New York and the Origins of Machine Politics (New York, 1984)
David Wilson, United Irishmen, United States: Immigrant Radicals in the Early Republic (Ithaca, NY, 1998), Chapter 3
Steven Erie, Rainbow’s End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840-1985 (Berkeley, CA, 1988)
Eric Foner, "Class, Ethnicity, and Radicalism in the Gilded Age: The Land League and Irish America," Marxist Perspectives 2 (1978): 6-55.
7 C. Groneman and D. Reimers in Kenneth T. Jackson, eds., The Encyclopedia of New York City (New Haven, CT, 1995), 582, 584
George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940 (New York, 1994), 137.
8 Johnson, "Defining ’Social Evil,’" 218-20.
Vos in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 1150.
The Age of Reform, 70-82
Glenn, "Uprisings," in Daughters of the Shtetl
Annelise Orleck, Common Sense and a Little Fire: Women and Working-Class Politics in the United States, 1900-1965 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1995).
David Hammack, Power and Society: Greater New York at the Turn of the Century (1982; New York, 1987), 155-56, 175-76
M. Angel and J. Gurock, "Jews," in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 621.
Jack Glazier, Dispersing the Ghetto: the Relocation of Jewish Immigrants across America (Ithaca, NY, 1998)
Moses Rischin, The Promised City, New York’s Jews, 18701914 (Cambridge, MA, 1962), Chapter 6.
Johnson, "Protection, Virtue, and the ’power to detain’"
"Defining ’The Social Evil,’" Chapter 3.
9 Martin Shefter, "Trade Unions and Political Machines, The Organization and Disorganization of the American Working Class in the Late Nineteenth Century," in Ira Katznelson and Aristide R. Zolberg, eds., Working-Class Formation: NineteenthCentury Patterns in Western Europe and the United States (Princeton, NJ, 1986), 270, 220-21
K. Candaele and S. Wilentz, "Labor," in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 646
Hammack, Power and Society, 173.
10 Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States (New York, 1990), 26368
Nell Irvin Painter, Standing at Armageddon: the United States, 1877-1919 (New York, 1987), xxvii-xxviii
Hammack, Power and Society, 174, 134-35, 137, 173-80
Erie, Rainbow’s End, 11
Shefter, "Trade Unions and Political Machines," 270-71.
Robert W. Glenn, The Haymarket Affair: An Annotated Bibliography (Westport, CT, 1993)
Bruce Nelson, Beyond the Martyrs: A Social History of Chicago’s Anarchists, 1870-1900 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1988).
11 Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Boston, 1993), 225-30, 236-38
Zinn, A People’s History, 280, 289
Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History (New York, 1995)
"Anarchy’s Den," The New York World (28 July 1892).
Goldman’s quote and information on her mobilization of the working-class are in People of New York v. Emma Goldman, 28, 31, 29 (Court of General Sessions of the Peace, City and County of New York, 4 October 1893), Government Documents, in The Emma Goldman Papers: A Microfilm Edition, ed. Candace Falk et al. (Alexandria, VA, 1990), reel 56 [hereafter cited as EGP 56].
Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (New York, 1999), 1187.
12 Shefter, "Trade Unions and Political Machines," 271.
Hammack, Power and Society, 110-11, 137-39, 114-15, 131, 138-45, 164-65, 125-27.
13 Herbert Gutman, "Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America, 1815— 1919," in Herbert Gutman, Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America: Essays in American Working-Class and Social History (New York, 1975), 69-71
Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. (New York, 1955), 174-85
Douglas V. Shaw, "The Making of an Immigrant City: Ethnic and Cultural Conflict in Jersey City, 1850-1877" (Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 1972).
James Weinstein, The Corporate Ideal in the Liberal State, 1900-1918 (Boston, 1968)
Samuel P. Hays, "The Politics of Reform in Municipal Government in the Progressive Era," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 55 (1964): 157-69.
Tammany (in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 600).
Takaki refers to machines as "Robin Hoods" (A Different Mirror, 162).
Erie, Rainbow’s End, 57-66, 85-91, 241-44
Shefter, "Trade Unions and Political Machines."
Edward Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice: The Jewish Fight Against White Slavery, 1870-1939 (New York, 1983), 176
Nicola Beisel, Imperiled Innocents: Anthony Comstock and Family Reproduction in Victorian America (Princeton, NJ, 1997), Chapter 6.
Niermann, Introduction, 5, University Settlement Society of New York City Papers (Madison, WI, 1972) Microfilm, reel 1.
G. Benjamin in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 237
Hammack, Power and Society, 140-41, 128-29, 344, notes 15
16.
14 Johnson, "Defining ’The Social Evil,’ " Chapters 1-3
Elisabeth Israels Perry, Belle Moskowitz: Feminine Politics and the Exercise of Power in the Age of Alfred E. Smith (New York, 1987)
Ruth Crocker, Social Work and Social Order: The Settlement Movement in Two Industrial Cities, 1889-1930 (Urbana, IL, 1992).
15 People of New York v. Emma Goldman, 28, 31, 29 in EGP 56.
Samuel P. Orth, The Boss and the
Machine, A Chronicle of the Politicians and Party Organization (New Haven, CT, 1919), Chapter IV.
Jo Freeman’s evidence from the 1900 New York Evening Post.
Johnson, "Defining ’The Social Evil,’" Chapters 1-3.
16 William Howe Tolman, Municipal Reform Movements in the United States (New York, 1895), 185-97
Parkhurst Autumn 1892 League circular in Tolman, 196, 192-3.
Parkhurst, Our Fight, 16, 23.
Catholic Church is from Press Abstracts (23 September 1901), box 3, Committee of Fifteen Records 1900-1901, Rare Books and Manuscripts Division, New York Public Library.
Pamela Ann Roby, "Politics and Prostitution: A Case Study of the Formulation, Enforcement and Judicial Administration of the New York State Penal Laws on Prostitution, 1870-1970" (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1971), 76.
Johnson, "Defining ’The Social Evil,’" Chapter 1
Jeremy P. Felt, "Vice Reform as a Political Technique: The Committee of Fifteen in New York, 1900-1901," New York History 54 (1973): 24-51.
17 Beisel, Imperiled Innocents, 111
R. Skolnick in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 1019
Martin Schiesl, The Politics of Efficiency: Municipal Administration and Reform in America, 1880-1920 (Berkeley, CA, 1977), 13
Roosevelt, Autobiography (New York, 1913), 63.
Hammack, Power and Society
Johnson, "Defining ’Social Evil,’ " Chapter 1.
Gail Bederman, Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917 (Chicago, 1995), Chapter 5.
18 Shefter, "Trade Unions and Political Machines."
Deutsch, Women and the City, 280.
S. Sara Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger: Women’s Electoral Activism in New York City Before Suffrage." Journal of Women’s History 2, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 100-35
Maureen Flanagan, "Gender and Urban Political Reform: The City Club and The Woman’s City Club of Chicago in the Progressive Era," American Historical Review 94, no. 4 (October 1990): 1032-50
Gary E. Endelman, Solidarity Forever: Rose Schneiderman & the Women’s Trade Union League (New York, 1981).
19 Lori Ginzberg, Women and the Work of Benevolence: Morality, Politics, and Class in the Nineteenth Century United States (New Haven, CT, 1990).
Waugh, Unsentimental Reformer, 105-06, 260, note 19.
Ginzberg, George Fredrickson, The Inner Civil War, Northern Intellectuals and the Crisis of the Union (New York, 1965)
Paul Boyer, Urban Masses and Moral Order in America, 1820-1920 (Cambridge, MA, 1978).
Waugh, Unsentimental Reformer.
Tolman, Municipal Reform, 147.
N. Krantowitz, "Population," in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 923.
Waugh, 222-23.
Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger"
Jo Freeman, "’One Man, One Vote, One Woman, One Throat’: Women in New York City Politics, 1890-1910," American Nineteenth Century History, 1, no. 3 (Autumn 2001): 101-23
Johnson, ’"Defining ’Social Evil,’" Chapters 1-2.
20 Tolman, Municipal Reform, 185-97.
21 Lowell, Letter to the Editor; and "For System in Giving Alms," both New York Times (25 December, 1893 and 22 March, 1894)
"Five Months’ Work for the Unemployed in New York City," Charities Review 3 (1894): 323-42
Burrows and Wallace, Gotham, 1188-90
Waugh, Unsentimental Reformer, 219-20
Robert A. Woods and Albert J. Kennedy, eds., Handbook of Settlements (1911; New York, 1970), 194.
22 Lowell’s (JSL) correspondence as follows: JSL to George Morgan, 11 March, 12 March, and 6 May, 1901, Committee of Fifteen Records 1900-1901 (Wilmington, DE, 1998), Microfilm, reel 1, frames 0230, 0236,0242 [hereafter cited as C15M 1: 0230,0236, 0242]
JSL to Felix Adler, 18 March 1901, C15M 1: 0232.
"WOMEN TO ATTACK VICE," New York Sun (16 March 1901), Press Abstracts (25 June 1901)
Press Abstracts (9 October 1901) box 3, C15R.
Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger," 110-14.
Freeman, " ’One Man, One Vote.’ " The quotation is from New York Evening Post (October 18, 1900).
23 Gordon Kuzmack, Woman’s Cause; Rogow, Gone to Another Meeting
Johnson, "Protection, Virtue, and the ’power to detain.’ "
Lillian Wald Papers, 1889-1940 (New York: New York Public Library), microfilm [hereafter cited as LWP2]
Lillian Wald Papers (1889-1940), Rare Book and Manuscript Room, Butler Library, Columbia University [hereafter cited as LWP1]
Greenwich House Records, 1896-1956 (New York: Tamiment Institute Library Microfilm, 1995).
24 Tolman, Municipal Reform, 111-19.
Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger," 101, 104, 108-09, 110-12, 114, 129, note 21, 130-31, notes 41 and 57
Nathan, The Story of an Epoch-Making Movement (New York, 1926), 19
Waugh, Unsentimental Reformer, 228
William Rhinelander Stewart, The Philanthropic Work of Josephine Shaw Lowell (New York, 1911), 417.
25 Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger," 101,104, 108-09, 110-12, 114, 129, note 21, 130-31, notes 41 and 57
Woman’s Municipal League, Facts for Fathers and Mothers (New York, 1901)
Tolman, Municipal Reform, 177-79.
26 Larocque in Parkhurst, Our Fight, 260-63.
Tammany is from New York Times (5 October 1894)
Hammack, Power and Society, 151.
Tolman, Municipal Reform, 28.
Hammack, 101-02, 155-56
Schiesl, Politics of Efficiency, 63.
27 Freeman, " ’One Man, One Vote’"
Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger," 104-05.
New York Times (21 April and 14 May, 1894).
28 Hammack, Power and Society 116, 143, 347, note 53.
Stewart, Philanthropic Work, 563.
29 Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London (Chicago, 1992), 7, 250, note 19.
Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, African American Women in the Struggle for the Vote, 1850-1920 (Bloomington, IN, 1998)
Louise M. Newman, White Women’s Rights: The Racial Origins of Feminism in the United States (New York, 1999).
Rebecca Edwards in Gustafson, Miller and Israels Perry, eds., We Have Come to Stay: American Women and Political Parties, 1880-1960 (Albuquerque, NM, 1999).
She argues along the following lines with regard to bourgeois women’s campaigns for purer elections: "This effort was, in part, an attack on male privilege. It was also antagonistic to working class traditions. In movements to reform electoral campaigns, the gender identities of women served to reinforce, rather than bridge, class differences" (14).
Carrie Chapman Catt, Woman Suffrage By Federal Constitutional Amendment (New York, 1917).
30 League members included Mrs. G. H. Putnam, Mrs. William Rhinelander Stewart, Mrs. E. L. Godkin, Maude Nathan, and Lillian Wald. Waugh, Unsentimental Reformer, 225
WML material in Tolman, Municipal Reform, 117-19.
Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger," 101, 104,108-09,110-11, 112.
31 New York Times (October 31, 1894), in Freeman "’One Man, One Vote" 202
Waugh, Unsentimental Reformer, 225
WML in Tolman, Municipal Reform, 177-19.
32 Lowell, "What Can Young Men Do For the City?" (28 March 1898), in Stewart, Philanthropic Work, 432-33
Waugh, Unsentimental Reformer, 124.
Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (New York, 1991), 35-36,44.
note 61.
33 Lowell, "Relation of Women to Good Government" (1899), in Stewart, Philanthropic Work, 435-45.
Lowell’s 10 September & November 1903 Letters to the Editor of the WML Bulletin in Stewart, 420, 421.
34 Lillian Wald, "The Interpretive Value of the Settlement," box 34, LWP2.
35 Wald, "Crowded Districts of Large Cities," 260, 261, 265.
Reynolds’ "colonial" quote is in "Annual Report 1900," 14, from University Settlement, reel 4.
Abraham Cahan, "The Russian Jew in America," Atlantic Monthly 82 (July 1898): 263-87.
Lower East Side (Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice, 148).
James Barrett and David Roediger, ’Tnbetween Peoples: Race, Nationality and the ’New Immigrant’ Working Class," Journal of American Ethnic History 16, no. 3 (1997): 12.
Jacobson, Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad (New York, 2000), 121-27.
Irwin Yellowitz, Labor and the Progressive Movement in New York State, 1897-1916 (Ithaca, NY, 1965), 183.
36 his authorship of The Rise of David Levinsky.
Cahan, The Education of Abraham Cahan, tr. Leon Stein et al. (Philadelphia, 1969)
Sanford E. Marovitz, Abraham Cahan (New York, 1996).
37 Israels Perry, Belle Moskowitz, 14 ff.
Selma C. Berrol, "When Uptown Met Downtown: Julia Richman’s Work in the Jewish Community of New York, 1880-1912," American Jewish History 70 (September 1980): 35-51
Johnson, "Defining ’Social Evil,’" 245, 255-57, 294.
Press Abstracts (24 July 1901) box 3, C15R.
Connelly, The Response to Prostitution, 60-61, 118-19
Arthur Goren, New York Jews and the Quest for Community: The Kehillah Experiment, 1908-1922 (New York, 1970), 134
Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice, 46-47, 175.
38 Wald, The House on Henry Street (New York, 1915), 174.
Johnson "The 1901 Campaign Against Vice," in "Defining ’Social Evil,’" Chapter 2.
"THE FIFTEEN APPROVE THE PROPOSED TENEMENT LAW," unidentified (25 March 1901), Newspaper Clippings File, C15M reel 16, frame 0387 [hereafter cited as Clippings 16: 0387, C15M].
39 Report of Max Moscowitz, 16 March 1901, box 7, and "41 First St." on Kreisworth, Conklin, and Moscowitz, box 15, both C15R.
Wagner, "Virtue Against Vice," 81.
40 "RED LIGHT CADET’S CRIME," Sun (15 February 1901), "VICTIMS COMPLAIN," Sun (16 March 1901) clippings C15M 16: 0317.
41 James B. Reynolds cited in Press Abstracts (26 February 1901) box 3, C15R
"VICE NOW REDOMICILED," New York Post (9 February 1901)
Reynolds’ comments in Clippings, C15M 16: 0033, 0673-76.
Committee of Fourteen, Annual Report (New York: Committee of Fourteen, 1914), 19
Madge D. Headley (Secretary of the COS Tenement House Committee) to Frederick Whitin, 24 June 1914, THD Prior to 1915-i folder, box 21, Committee of Fourteen Records (1905-1920), Rare Book and Manuscripts Division, New York Public Library [hereafter cited as C14].
Gilfoyle, City of Eros, 336-37, note 11, 384, note 3, 394, note 2, 417, 296-97.
42 Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice, 148.
43 Wald, Henry Street, 174.
Woods and Kennedy, eds., Handbook, 196
Perry, Belle Moskowitz, 99-101, 239, note 6
Gordon Kuzmack, Woman’s Cause, 66
Johnson, "Defining ’Social Evil,’ " Chapter 2.
44 Downtown Ethical Society material, quoted in Woods and Kennedy, eds., Handbook, 196.
45 Simkhovitch, Neighborhood, 64-66
Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice, 146-A1, 148
Daniel Czitrom, "Underworlds and Underdogs: Big Tim Sullivan and Metropolitan Politics in New York, 1889-1913," in Raymond Mohl, ed., The Making of Urban America, 2nd ed. (Wilmington, DE, 1997), 139^11.
46 "RED LIGHT CADET’S CRIME," New York Sun (15 February 1901); "VICTIMS COMPLAIN," New York Sun (16 March 1901) clippings C15M 16: 0317.
Angel & Gurock, in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 621
Rudolf Glanz, The Jewish Woman in America: Two Female Immigrant Generations 1820-1929, Volume I, The Eastern European Jewish Woman (New York, 1976), 111
Hammack, Power and Society, 156
Felt, "Vice Reform as a Political Technique," 48.
47 Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice, 42
Susan A. Glenn, Daughters Of The Shtetl: Life and Labor in the Immigrant Generation (Ithaca, NY, 1990), 69-70, 79-82, 116-17.
"RED LIGHT CADET’S CRIME," New York Sun (15 February 1901)
"VICTIMS COMPLAIN," New York Sun (16 March 1901), clippings C15M 16: 0317.
48 Alexander, The Girl Problem: Female Sexual Delinquency In New York, 1900-1930 (Ithaca, NY, 1995)
Odern, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885-1920 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1995)
Rothman, "Bad Girls/Poor Girls: A New York History Of Social Control From The Alms House To Family Court" (Ph.D. diss., City University of New York, 1989), 344-49, 307.
49 Glenn, Daughters of the Shtetl, 213-14.
Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice, 147
Michael Gold, Jews Without Money (New York, 1930)
Glanz, The Jewish Woman in America, 189, note 33.
50 Johnson, "Defining ’Social Evil,’ "
51 Rischin, The Promised City, Chapter 6, especially 96-98.
Little Germany: Ethnicity, Religion, and Class in New York City, 1845-80 (Urbana, IL, 1990), 99-103.
Cassedy, To the Other Shore: The Russian Jewish Intellectuals Who Came to America (Princeton, NJ, 1997).
52 Nadel, Little Germany, 147-54,132-36: Monoson, "The Lady and the Tiger," 113
Hammack, Power and Society, 115-19, 144, 151-54, 168.
Press Abstracts box 3, C15R
53 Johnson, "Protection, Virtue, and the ’power to detain,’ " 655-84
"Defining ’Social Evil,’ " Chapter 3.
Gone to Another Meeting, 44-53, 57
A Woman’s Cause, 63, 68-69, 73
Perry, Belle Moskowitz
Cahan, Education of Abraham Cahan, 218-19, 400.
54 Felt, "Vice Reform as a Political Technique"
Bristow, Prostitution and Prejudice, 48
Arthur Goren, New York Jews and the Quest for Community: The Kehillah Experiment, 1908-1922 (New York, 1970).
Bristow, 146.
F. E. Pierce, The Tenement-House Committee Maps (New York, 1895 [from 1890 Census]).
Kate Holladay Claghorn from data in Vital Statistics 1890, New York Public Library, Map Division.
Germans," in Jackson, ed., Encyclopedia, 463
Germans were Protestant (Nadel, Little Germany, 91,92, 95-97).
55 Goldman, "Victims of Morality" in A. K. Shulman, ed., Red Emma Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches by Emma Goldman (New York, 1972), 126-32.
Goldman’s trial transcript, People of New York v. Emma Goldman, 28, 31, 29 in EGP 56.
Roediger, "White Slaves, Wage Slaves, and Free White Labor," in Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness
Johnson, "Defining ’Social Evil,’ " Chapter 3.
56 Burrows and Wallace, Gotham, 1187
"Anarchy’s Den," New York World (28 July 1892)
People of New York v. Emma Goldman (Grand Jury Indictment, 1893), and Government Documents (1884-1916), both in EGP, reel 56.
Christiane Harzig, "The Ethnic Female Public Sphere: German-American Women in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago," in Elders veld Murphy and Hamand Vent, eds., Midwestern Women: Work, Community, and Leadership at the Crossroads (Bloomington, IN, 1997).
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview