Education research often examines popular music as a tool for achieving classroom learning outcomes. Approaching pedagogical uses of music through applied ethnomusicology reveals even more useful conclusions about the social context and pedagogical applications of bilingual popular music. Research with musicians and teachers in Minnesota and Manitoba indicates that Anishinaabemowin/English popular music encourages revernacularization by extending language use and cultural knowledge beyond the classroom. Rather than working solely through the English language, this educational approach strategically uses bilingual hip hop music in Indigenous languages and offers opportunities for students to form their own critical decolonial consciousness.

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