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1. All interview participants’ names have been changed.
3. Rebecca A. Smith and Susan E. Mannon, “‘Nibbling on the Margins of Patriarchy’: Latina Immigrants in Northern Utah,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 33, no. 6 (2010): 986–1005; Ignacio M. García, “Finding a Mormon Identity through Religion and Activism: A Personal Note on Constructing a Latino Time and Place in the Mormon Narrative,” Journal of Mormon History 41, no. 2 (2015): 69–90; Ignacio García, “Empowering Latino Saints to Transcend Historical Racialism: A Bishop’s Tale,” in Decolonizing Mormonism: Approaching a Postcolonial Zion, edited by Joanna Brooks and Gina Colvin (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2018), 1–360; Sujey Vega, “Hermanas interseccionales: Las latinas de LDS navegan por la fe, el liderazgo y la solidaridad femenina,” Latino Studies 17, no. 1 (2019): 27–47.
4. Elise Boxer, “‘To Become White and Delightsome’: American Indians and Mormon Identity” (PhD diss., Arizona State University, 2009); Hokulani K. Aikau, A Chosen People, A Promised Land: Mormonism and Race in Hawai’i (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012); W. Paul Reeve, Religion of a Different Color: Race and the Mormon Struggle for Whiteness (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015); Moroni Benally, “Decolonizing the Blossoming: Indigenous People’s Faith in a Colonizing Church,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 50, no. 4 (2017): 71–188.
5. Armand L. Mauss, All Abraham’s Children: Changing Mormon Conceptions of Race and Lineage (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010).
6. 2 Nephi 5:21, 23–24.
7. Floyd A. O’Neill and Stanford J. Layton, “Of Pride and Politics: Brigham Young as Indian Superintendent,” Utah Historical Quarterly 46, no. 3 (1978): 239–41.
8. Sylvester A. Johnson, “Accounting for Whiteness in Mormon Religion,” Mormon Studies Review 3 (2016): 117–33.
9. Max Perry Mueller, Race and the Making of the Mormon People (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017).
10. John Kincaid, “Extinguishing the Twin Relics of Barbaric Multiculturalism—Slavery and Polygamy—from American Federalism,” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 33, no. 1 (2003): 75–92.
11. The Congressional Globe, Thirty-Eighth Congress, Second Session, Jan. 1865, 144.
12. W. Paul Reeve, “From Not White Enough to Too White: The Historical Evolution of a Mormon Race,” Sunstone Magazine (website), Jan. 1, 2015, https://www.sunstonemagazine.com/from-not-white-enough-to-too-white-the-historical-evolution-of-a-mormon-race/.
13. Sondra Jones, The Trial of Don Pedro León Luján: The Attack Against Indian Slavery and the Mexican Traders in Utah (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2000).
14. Andrés Reséndez, The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016).
15. Kate B. Carter, Heart Throbs of the West, vol. 4 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, 1943).
16. Reséndez, The Other Slavery, 245.
17. García, “Finding a Mormon Identity.”
19. Octavio I. Romano-V, “Minorities, History and the Cultural Mystique,” El Grito: A Journal of Contemporary Mexican-American Thought 1, no. 1 (1967): 5–11.
20. Aihwa Ong, Buddha Is Hiding: Refugees, Citizenship, and the New America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).
21. Ibid., 200–01.
22. Mark L. Grover, “The Maturing of the Oak: The Dynamics of LDS Growth in Latin America,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 38, no. 2 (2005): 79.
23. Michael O’Loughlin, “Competing for Hispanic Catholics: Secularism, Other Faiths Battle for Souls,” Crux (website), July 2, 2015, https://cruxnow.com/church/2015/07/02/competing-for-hispanic-catholics-secularism-other-faiths-battle-for-souls/.
24. Roberto G. Gonzales, Lives in Limbo: Undocumented and Coming of Age in America (Oakland: University of California Press, 2016).
25. Claudia L. Bushman, Contemporary Mormonism: Latter-day Saints in Modern America (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006), 102–09.
26. Mark L. Grover, review of “In His Own Language”: Mormon Spanish Speaking Congregations in the United States, by Jessie L. Embry, BYU Studies Quarterly 38, no. 2 (1999): 211–14, available at https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/byusq/vol38/iss2/13/.
27. Emily Ann Gurnon, “The Dark Face of a White Church: Latinos and Mormon Racism” (master’s thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1993), 1–17; Emily Gurnon, “Minority Mormons: Latinos and Latter-day Saints,” Christian Century 111, no. 5 (1994): 157–59.
28. Sharon Hays, The Cultural Contradictions of Motherhood (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998).
29. Pamela Stone, Opting Out?: Why Women Really Quit Careers and Head Home (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).
30. Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo and Ernestine Avila, “‘I’m Here, But I’m There’: The Meanings of Latina Transnational Motherhood,” Gender and Society 11, no. 5 (1997): 548–71; Leisy J. Abrego, Sacrificing Families: Navigating Laws, Labor, and Love Across Borders (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2014), 11; Joanna Dreby, Everyday Illegal: When Policies Undermine Immigrant Families (Oakland: University of California Press, 2015).
31. Patricia Fernández-Kelly and Sara Curran, “Nicaraguans: Voices Lost, Voices Found,” in Ethnicities: Children of Immigrants in America, edited by Rubén G. Rumbaut and Alejandro Portes (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 127–56.; Elma I. Lorenzo-Blanco, Alan Meca, Jennifer B. Unger, Andrea Romero, Melinda Gonzales-Backen, Brandy Piña-Watson, Miguel Ángel Cano, et al., “Latino Parent Acculturation Stress: Longitudinal Effects on Family Functioning and Youth Emotional and Behavioral Health,” Journal of Family Psychology 30, no. 8 (2016): 966; Vicki Ruíz, From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).
32. Ignacio M. García, “Thoughts on Latino Mormons, Their Afterlife, and the Need for a New Historical Paradigm for Saints of Color,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 50, no. 4 (2017): 1–29.
33. Patricia Arredondo, “Mujeres Latinas—Santas y Marquesas,” Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 8, no. 4 (2002): 308–19; Rachel Hershberg and M. Brinton Lykes, “Redefining Family: Transnational Girls Narrate Experiences of Parental Migration, Detention, and Deportation,” Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung 14, no. 1 (2013): 14–35; Leah M. Sarat, Fire in the Canyon: Religion, Migration, and the Mexican Dream (New York: New York University Press, 2013).
34. Catherine A Brekus, “Tanner Lecture: Mormon Women and the Problem of Historical Agency,” Journal of Mormon History 37, no. 2 (2011): 58–87; Dorothy Allred Solomon, The Sisterhood: Inside the Lives of Mormon Women (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007); Neylan McBaine, Women at Church: Magnifying LDS Women’s Local Impact (Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2014); Cory Crawford, “The Struggle for Female Authority in Biblical and Mormon Theology,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 48, no. 2 (2015): 1–66; Curtis G. Greenfield, Pauline Lytle, and F. Myron Hays, “Living the Divine Divide: A Phenomenological Study of Mormon Mothers Who Are Career-Professional Women,” Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 16, no. 1 (2016): 1–14; Neylan McBaine, “Roundtable: Mormon Women and the Anatomy of Belonging,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 50, no. 1 (2017): 193–202.
35. Edward Flores, God’s Gangs: Barrio Ministry, Masculinity, and Gang Recovery (New York: New York University Press, 2014); Claudia Roesch, Macho Men and Modern Women: Mexican Immigration, Social Experts and Changing Family Values in the 20th Century United States, Family Values and Social Change, vol. 1 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2015).
36. Tina U. Hancock, “Sin Papeles: Undocumented Mexicanas in the Rural United States,” Affilia 22, no. 2 (2007):175–84; Sujey Vega, Latino Heartland: Of Borders and Belonging in the Midwest (New York: New York University Press, 2015).
37. Peggy Levitt, “Religion as a Path to Civic Engagement,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 31, no. 4 (2008): 766–91; Felipe Hinojosa, Latino Mennonites: Civil Rights, Faith, and Evangelical Culture (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014).
38. Jorge Iber, Hispanics in the Mormon Zion, 1912–1999 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2000).
39. Ibid., 19–39.
40. García, “Thoughts on Latino Mormons.”
41. Rhacel Salazar Parreñas, Servants of Globalization: Migration and Domestic Work (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2015).
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