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[Footnotes]

1 Basic information on the life of R. C. Evans can be found in Roger D. Launius, "R. C. Evans: Boy Orator of the Reorganization/’ John Whitmer Historical Association Journal 3 (1983): 40-50;
Roy A. Cheville, They Made a Difference (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1970), 258-67;
F. Henry Edwards, The History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1973), 5:605-607;
W. Grant McMurray, "’His Reward is Sure’: The Search for R. C. Evans," Restoration Trail Forum 11 (May 1985): 5-6.
3 Gus Tuberville, "Religious Schism in the Methodist Church: A Sociological Analysis of the Pine Grove Case," Rural Sociology 14 (1949): 29-39;
Christopher Dawson, "What About Heretics: An Analysis of the Causes of Schism," Commonweal 36 (1942): 513-17;
Anthony Oberschall, Social Conflicts and Social Movements (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973);
H. Richard Neibuhr, The Social Sources of Denominationalism (New York: Meridian Books, 1929). James S. Coleman, "Social Cleavage and Religious Conflict," Journal of Social Issues 12 (1956): 44-56;
William Gamson, Power and Discontent (Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, 1968);
Rodney Stark and William S. Bainbridge, A Theory of Religion (New York: Peter Lang, 1987)
Edwin Scott Gaustad, Dissent in American Religion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973);
John Wilson, "The Sociology of Schism," A Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain (London, Eng.: SCM Press, 1971), 4:1-21;
Mary Lou Steed, "Church Schism and Secession: A Necessary Sequence?" Review of Religious Research 27 (1986): 344-55.
Roger D. Launius and Linda Thatcher, eds., Differing Visions: Dissenters in Mormon History (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994).
4 S.N. Eisenstadt, ed., Max Weber on Charisma and Institution Building: Selected Papers (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968),
Eric Hoffer, The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (New York: Harper and Row, 1980).
5 R. C. Evans, Autobiography of Elder R.C. Evans, One of the First Presidency of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (London, Ont.: n.p., 1907), 6-9;
John J. Cornish, Into the Latter-day Light: An Autobiography (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1929), 59;
Alvin Knisley, Biographical Dictionary of the letter Day Saints Ministry from the Rise of the Church to 1948 (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1948), n.p.
6 Evans, Autobiography, 35-41.
7 Cheville, They Made a Difference, 259-65.
8 R. C. Evans, "Baptism is Immersion," Saints ’ Herald 36 (19 Oct. 1889): 684-86, 36 (26 Oct. 1889): 704-706, 36 (2 Nov. 1889): 719-22;
"Lecture by Elder R. C. Evans," Saints’ Herald 39 (9 July 1892): 447-49;
R. C. Evans, "Ideas of Hell. As Taught by Both Catholic and Protestant Ministries. Also a Few Thoughts on Probation, Foreordination, and Unconditional Election," Autumn Leaves 6 (July 1893): 297-301;
R. C. Evans, "The Mother of Harlots and Her Daughter: A Picture as Painted by the Artistic Brush of the Historians now Reposing in My Library," Saints’ Herald 49 (9 Apr. 1902): 334-37, 49 (16 Apr. 1902): 356-59;
R. C. Evans, "What Shall I Do with Jesus?" Saints’ Herald 49 (3 Dec. 1902): 117277;
R. C. Evans, "The Eleventh Hour Dispensation," Saints’ Herald 51 (20 Jan. 1904): 53-59;
R. C. Evans, "An Examination of ’Campbellism’," Saints’ Herald 51 (25 May 1904): 478-84, 51 (1 June 1904): 484-508.
9 Edwards, History of the Reorganized Church, 5:606-607.
10 Interview with Larry W. Windland, 15 Sept. 1991, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
R. C. Evans, The Songs, Poems, Notes and Correspondence of Bishop R. C. Evans, and Some Addresses Presented to Him, from Many Parts of the World (London, Ont.: n.p., 1918).
11 Evans, Autobiography, 166-67;
"The Canadian Press on President Smith’s Visit," Saints’ Herald 44 (27 Oct. 1897): 677-79;
"The Editor Abroad," Saints’ Herald 44 (10 Nov. 1897): 709-11;
London (Ontario) News, 8 Oct. 1897.
12 Roger D. Launius, Joseph Smith III: Pragmatic Prophet (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 333-35.
13 Book of Doctrine and Covenants (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1970 ed.), Sec. 126.
Biographical information on Frederick M. Smith can be obtained in two fine studies: Larry E. Hunt, F. M. Smith: Saint as Reformer (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1982), 2 vols.;
Paul M. Edwards, The Chief: An Administrative Biography of Frederick Madison Smith (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1988).
14 Peter Gay, Freud for Historians (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983).
15 Evans to George A. Blakeslee, 22 May 1888, R. C. Evans Biographical File, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Library-Archives, Independence, Missouri.
16 Smith to Evans, 22 May 1896, Joseph Smith III Letterbook #6, 486-87, Reorganized Church Library-Archives.
17 Some of these specifics have been discussed in Launius, "R. C. Evans," 42-43.
18 T. W. Williams, "A Darkened Mind," Saints’ Herald 66 (6 Mar. 1919): 318.
19 Interview with Larry W. Windland, 15 Sept. 1991;
Cheville, They Made a Difference, 263-64;
Williams, "Darkened Mind," 318;
R. C. Evans, Why I Left the Latter Day Saint Church: Reasons by Bishop R.C. Evans (Toronto, Ont.: n.p., 1918), 52.
20 Book of Doctrine and Covenants, 43:2;
Russell F. Ralston, Fundamental Differences (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1963), 14-75;
Aleah G. Koury, The Truth and the Evidence (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1965).
21 "The Mormon Conference," True Latter Day Saints’ Herald 1 (Apr. 1860): 103.
See also "Testimony of Joseph Smith," in Complainant’s Abstract of Pleading and Evidence in the Circuit Court of the United States, Western District of Missouri, Western Division, at Kansas City, Missouri (Lamoni, IA: Herald Publishing House, 1893), 79-80.
22 Rules and Resolutions (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1964 ed.), Res. 386.
23 Book of Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 104:18.
24 Ibid., 107:18c.
25 Ibid., 124:7.
26 "Conference Minutes: Decatur District," Saints’ Herald 44 (23 June 1897): 401-402.
27 R. C. Evans, Forty Years in the Mormon Church: Why I Left It (Shreveport, LA: Lambert Book House, 1976 ed.), 77.
28 Edwards, History of the Reorganized Church, 5:558.
29 Launius, "R. C. Evans," 43.
30 Book of Doctrine and Covenants, 128:8.
31 Evans, Forty Years in the Mormon Church, 137.
32 Evans to Smith, 20 May 1907, Evans Papers.
33 Evans, Why I Left the Latter Day Saint Church, 42;
Evans to Frederick M. Smith, 20 May 1907, 24 June 1915, 5 Jan. 1918, Evans Papers.
34 Evans, Autobiography, 270.
35 Ibid., 224-25;
"Bro. Evans in Toronto," Saints’ Herald 53 (28 Feb. 1906): 195-96;
Evans to E. L. Kelley, 28 Nov. 1910, Evans Papers.
36 Evans to E. L. Kelley, 9 Mar. 1911, Evans Papers;
Cheville, They Made a Difference, 261-62.
37 Evans to E. L. Kelley, 21 Jan., 18 Nov. 1907, 5 Jain., 6 Jan., 28 Apr., 6 June, 19 Oct. 1908, all in Evans Papers.
38 Maurice L. Draper, "Apostolic Ministry in the Reorganization," in Maurice L. Draper and Clare D. Vlahos, eds., Restoration Studies I (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1980), 219-31;
Joseph Smith III, "Pleasant Chat," True Latter Day Saints’ Herald 9 (1 May 1866): 129-30;
F. Henry Edwards, A Commentary on the Doctrine and Covenants (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1967 ed.), 411-12;
Quorum of Twelve Minutes, 1865-1928, 4 Apr. 1890, Reorganized Church Archives;
Joseph Smith III, William H. Kelley, and E. L. Kelley, "Epistle of the Council," Saints’ Herald 44 (21 July 1897): 257, as quoted in Edwards, History of the Reorganized Church, 5:403-406.
39 First Presidency Minutes, 5 Apr. 1907, 180-81, Reorganized Church Library-Archives.
40 Ibid., 9 Apr. 1907, 190-91.
41 Joseph Smith III, "A Letter of Instruction," Saints’ Herald 59 (13 Mar. 1912): 241-48.
42 First Presidency Minutes, 16 Mar., 26 Mar. 1908.
43 Edwards, History of the Reorganized Church, 6:266-67.
44 Evans to Smith, 22 Feb. 1909, Evans Papers.
45 Book of Doctrine and Covenants, 129:1.
46 Smith to Evans, 26 Apr. 1909, Evans Papers.
47 Smith to Evans, 12 July 1909, Evans Papers.
48 The Work in Toronto," Saints ’ Herald 57 (2 Feb. 1910): 125-26;
Evans to Joseph Smith III, 16 July 1909;
Evans to E. L. Kelley, 7 Oct. 1909, 12 Jan. 1915, all in Evans Papers.
49 Smith to Evans, 15 Feb. 1910, Evans Papers.
50 Smith to Evans, 7 Dec. 1910, Evans Papers.
51 Smith to Evans, 17 May 1911, Evans Papers.
52 Evans to E. L. Kelley, 28 Nov. 1910, 9 Mar. 1911;
Evans to Joseph Smith III, 6 Nov. 1912, 12 Jan. 1915;
Evans to Frederick M. Smith, 10 Dec., 28 Dec. 1914;
Evans to Elbert A. Smith, 15 Dec. 1914, all in Evans Papers.
53 R. C. Evans, "My Acquaintance with Pres. Joseph Smith, At Home and Abroad," Saints’ Herald 57 (6 Apr. 1910): 356-59;
Evans, Songs, Poems, Notes and Correspondence of Bishop R. C. Evans, 23, 125;
Joseph Smith III to Evans, 12 July 1909, 15 Feb. 1910, 17 May 1911;
Evans to Joseph Smith III, 6 Nov. 1912;
Evans to Elbert A. Smith, 15 Dec. 1914;
Evans to Frederick M. Smith, 10 Dec. 1914, all in Evans Papers.
54 Smith to Evans, 24 Jan. 1915, Evans Papers.
55 Smith to Evans, 12 Feb. 1917, Evans Papers.
56 Evans, Forty Years in the Mormon Church, 79.
57 Evans to Smith, 5 Jan. 1918, Evans Papers.
58 "General Conference," Saints’ Herald 64 (18 Apr. 1917): 365;
Evans, Why I Left the Latter Day Saint Church, 40-42.
59 Joseph Smith III’s Last Remarks to his Family, 29 Nov. 1914, Joseph Smith III Papers, Reorganized Church Library-Archives;
"Statement of President Joseph Smith to his Son, Frederick M. Smith, Sunday, November 29, 1914," Zion’s Ensign 26 (11 Feb. 1914): 1.
60 Paul M. Edwards, "Theocratic-Democracy: Philosopher-King in the Reorganization," in F. Mark McKiernan, Alma R. Blair, and Paul M. Edwards, eds., The Restoration Movement: Essays in Mormon History (Lawrence, KS: Coronado Press, 1973), 341-57;
Hunt, F. M. Smith, 254-65;
Edwards, Chief, 15396.
61 letters from James A. Wilson to Frederick M. Smith, beginning 15 June 1917 and ending 22 April 1918, Evans Papers.
62 Evans, Why I Left the Latter Day Saint Church, 45-48;
Evans to Smith, 22 Apr., 13 May, 17 May 1918;
Evans to Benjamin R. McGuire, 22 Mar., 10 June, 13 June 1918, all in Evans Papers.
63 Frederick M. Smith, "R. C. Evans Leaves the Church," Saints’ Herald 65 (19 June 1918): 589.
64 Evans, Why I Left the Latter Day Saint Church, 50-51;
Evans to Frederick M. Smith, 3 June 1918;
Smith to Evans, both in Evans Papers.
65 Smith, "R. C. Evans Leaves the Church," 605;
Walter W. Smith, ed., Purported Angelic Visitation to R. C. Evans (Independence, MO: n.p., 1918).
66 McMurray, ’"His Reward is Sure,’" 6;
Edward W. Tullidge, The Life of Joseph the Prophet (Plano, IL: Herald Publishing House, 1880);
Wayne Ham, "Truth Affirmed, Error Denied: The Great Debates of the Early Reorganization," John Whitmer Historical Association Journal 7 (1987): 3-11.
67 Many of these books were published in the nineteenth century. As examples, see John C. Bennett, The History of the Saints, or an Expose of Joe Smith and the Mormons (Boston: Leland and Whiting, 1844);
Fanny Stenhouse, Tell It All: The Story of a Life’s Experience in Mormonism (Hartford, CT: D. Worthington and Co., 1874).
68 Stan L. Albrecht et al., "Religious Leave-Taking: Disengagement and Disaffection Among Mormons," in David G. Bromley, ed., Falling from the Faith: Causes and Consequences of Religious Apostasy (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1988), 62-80,
69 Gordon D. Pollock, "In Search for Security: The Mormons and the Kingdom of God on Earth, 1830-1844," 292-93, Ph.D. diss., Queen’s University, 1977.
70 Elbert A. Smith, "The Death of R. C. Evans," Saints’ Herald 68 (26 Jan. 1921): 76;
"Vision Related by I. N. Wight, Talk with Richard C. Evans in the Spirit World," 23 Dec. 1921, Evans Biographical File.

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