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[Footnotes]

1 Jeffrey R. Holland, " Atonement of Jesus Christ," in Encyclopedia of Mor monism, Daniel H. Ludlow, ed., 5 vols. (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992), 1:83.
2 J. Clair Batty, "The Atonement: Do Traditional Explanations Make Sense?" Sunstone 8 (Nov.-Dec. 1983): 11-16;
Stephen E. Robinson, "Believing Christ," Ensign 22 (Apr. 1992): 5-9.
3 John Taylor, Mediation and Atonement (Salt Lake City: Stevens & Wallis, Inc., 1950), 145;
James E. Talmage, Jesus the Christ, 17th ed. (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1948), 613.
4 Bruce R. McConkie, "The Purifying Power of Gethsemane," Ensign 15 (May 1985): 10.
6 Robert S. Paul, The Atonement and the Sacraments (New York: Abingdon Press, 1960), 79.
7 L. W. Grensted, A Short History of the Doctrine of the Atonement (Manchester, Eng.: Manchester University Press, 1920), 308, 364.
8 Sterling M. McMurrin, The Theological Foundations of the Mormon Religion (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1965), 89.
9 Eugene England, "That They Might Not Suffer: The Gift of Atonement," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 1 (Autumn 1966): 152.
10 Blake T. Ostler, "The Book of Mormon as a Modern Expansion of an Ancient Source," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 20 (Spring 1987): 82.
11 Mark Thomas, "Revival Language in the Book of Mormon," Sunstone 8 (May-June 1983): 22.
12 Keith Norman, "Toward a Mormon Christology," Sunstone 10 (Apr. 1985): 18.
13 McConkie, "The Purifying Power of Gethsemane," 9.
14 Hugh W. Nibley, "The Atonement of Jesus Christ," Ensign 20 (1990, in 4 parts: July 18-23; Aug. 30-34; Sept. 22-26; Oct. 26-31): part 3, 22.
15 Sterling M. McMurrin, "Comments on the Theological and Philosophical Foundations of Christianity," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 25 (Spring 1992): 42;
Robert M. Grant, The Early Christian Doctrine of God (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1966), 14-36.
16 C. C. J. Webb, God and Personality (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1919), 61-88.
17 Hastings Rashdall, The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology (London: Macmillan and Co., 1925), 355.
18 Susan W. Easton, "The Book of Mormon Bears Witness of the Father through the Son," in The Sixth Annual Church Educational System Religious Educator’s Symposium on the Book of Mormon (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University, 1982), 20-23.
19 Edmond L. Cherbonnier, "In Defense of Anthropomorphism," in Reflections on Mormonism, Judaeo Christian Parallels, Truman G. Madsen, ed. (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1978), 156.
20 Paul Deats in The Boston Personalist Tradition in Philosophy, Social Ethics, and Theology, Paul Deats and Carol Robb, eds. (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1986), 2.
21 Abraham J. Heschel, The Prophets, 2 vols. (New York: Harper and Row, 1962), 2:6, 39-40.
22 Edmond L. Cherbonnier, "The Logic of Biblical Anthropomorphism," Harvard Theological Review 55 (1962): 206.
23 Truman G. Madsen, ed., Reflections on Mormonism, Judaeo Christian Parallels (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1978), 201.
24 Martin Dibelius, "Gethsemane," Crozer Quarterly 12 (1953): 265;
and R. S. Barbour, "Gethsemane in the Tradition of the Passion," New Testament Studies 16 (1969-70): 231-35.
25 Paul S. Fiddes, The Creative Suffering of God (Oxford, Eng.: Clarendon Press, 1988), 77.
26 Joyce N. Woodbury, "Christ’s Atoning Sacrifice: The Role of the Crucifixion," Sunstone 8 (Nov.-Dec. 1983): 17-21.
27 Easton, "The Book of Mormon Bears Witness of the Father through the Son," 20-23.
28 Joseph Smith, Jr., et al., History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, B. H. Roberts, ed., 7 vols. (Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1932-51), 5:136.
29 Arthur H. King, " Atonement, The Only Wholeness," Ensign 5 (Apr. 1975): 17.
30 J. K. Mozley, The Impassibility of God (London: Cambridge University Press, 1926),
Warren McWilliams, The Passion of God (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1985),
31 John Caird, The Fundamental Ideas of Christianity, 2 vols. (Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons, 1899), 2:220-22; paragraph break added.
32 Ibid., 2:223.
33 Jonathan Edwards, "Concerning the Necessity and Reasonableness of the Christian Doctrine of Satisfaction for Sin," in The Works of President Edwards, 10 vols. (New York: G & C & H Corvill, 1830), 7:545.
34 England, "That They Might Not Suffer," 147.
35 Joseph Smith, Jr., Lectures on Faith (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1985), 59 (Lec. 5, par. 2), emphasis added.
36 F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews, rev. ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1990), 332.
37 Don S. Downing, Atonement and Psychotherapy (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1966).
R. G. Bruehl for the entry "Counter transference," in Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling, Rodney J. Hunter, ed. (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1990), 239-41.
38 "That They Might Not Suffer," 141-55, which also appeared in his Dialogues with Myself (Salt Lake City: Orion Books, 1984), 77-92;
"’Means unto Repentance’: Unique Book of Mormon Insights into Christ’s At-one-ment," in Rediscovering the Book of Mormon, John L. Sorenson and Melvin J. Thome, eds. (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1990), 153-67; and The Quality of Mercy (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1992).
39 B. H. Roberts, Seventies Course in Theology: 1908-12, 5-year manuals republished in 2 vols. (Dallas: S. K. Taylor Publ. Co., 1976), 2 (fourth year): 94. For similar examples, see 2 (fourth year): 99, 108, 118, 126.
40 Hyrum L. Andrus, God, Man, and the Universe (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1968), 396.
41 Hymns of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1985), no. 191.
42 Ibid., no. 187.
43 Roberts, Seventies Course in Theology: 1908-12, 2 (fourth year): 102. For similar examples, see 2 (fourth year): 94, 103, 109, 112.
44 Ibid., 2 (fourth year): 92, 98, 108, 126.
45 Truman G. Madsen, "B. H. Roberts: The Book of Mormon and the Atonement," in The Book of Mormon: First Nephi, The Doctrinal Foundation, Monte S. Nyman and Charles D. Tate, Jr., eds. (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1988), 308.
46 Vincent Taylor, Jesus and His Sacrifice (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1965), 49-75;
Robert J. Daly, Christian Sacrifice (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, (1978), 120-27.
Alma 34:11-12.
47 R. G. Crawford, "Is the Penal Theory of the Atonement Scriptural?" Scottish Journal of Theology 23 (Aug. 1970): 257-72;
George B. Stevens, The Christian Doctrine of Salvation (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1905), 100-102.
48 England, "That They Might Not Suffer," 145;
The Quality of Mercy, 24.
49 H. E. W. Turner, The Patristic Doctrine of Redemption (London: A. R. Mowbray & Co., 1952), 29-46.
50 John McLeod Campbell, The Nature of the Atonement (London: Macmillan and Co., 1873).
51 Horace Bushneil, The Vicarious Sacrifice (New York: Charles Scribner and Co., 1868).
52 Horace Bushneil, Forgiveness and Law (New York: Scribner, Armstrong and Co., 1874).
53 Ibid., 54.
54 Fiddes, in The Creative Suffering of God, 22-23.
55 H. R. Mackintosch, The Christian Experience of Forgiveness (London: Nisbet and Co., 1927), 183-91.
Paul S. Fiddes, Past Event and Present Salvation (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox, 1989), 173-75.
56 Donald M. Baillie, God Was in Christ (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1948), 157-202.
57 Fisher Humphreys, The Death of Christ (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1978), 116-35.
58 Fiddes, The Creative Suffering of God and Past Event and Present Salvation.
59 Vernon White, Atonement and Incarnation (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
60 David L. Wheeler, A Relational View of the Atonement (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1989).
61 White, Atonement and Incarnation, 63.
62 Ibid., 64.
63 Ibid., 52.
64 Ibid., 104.
65 Fiddes, The Creative Suffering of God, 166-67.

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