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[Footnotes]

1 Time 61 (13 Apr. 1953): cover, 13;
Time 67 (7 May 1956): cover, 30;
Members Propose Benson Resign," Arizona Republic, 13 Dec. 1959, Sect. 2, 1; "Irate Benson Says He’s Not About To Quit Job," Arizona Republic, 15 Dec. 1959, 3;
Ezra Taft Benson, Cross Fire: The Eight Years with Eisenhower (Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1962);
Sheri L. Dew, Ezra Taft Benson: A Biography (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1987), 253-359;
Edward L. Schapsmeier and Frederick H. Schapsmeier, "Eisenhower and Ezra Taft Benson: Farm Policy in the 1950s," Agricultural History 44 (Oct. 1970): 369-78;
Schapsmeier and Schapsmeier, Ezra Taft Benson and the Politics of Agriculture: The Eisenhower Years, 1953-1961 (Danville, IL: Interstate Printers and Publishers, 1975);
Schapsmeier and Schapsmeier, "Religion and Reform: A Case Study of Henry A. Wallace and Ezra Taft Benson," Journal of Church and State 21 (Autumn 1979): 525-35.
2 Henry D. Moyle diary, 24 Mar. 1953, archives, Historical Department, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah (hereafter LDS archives);
J. Reuben Clark ranch diary, 29 Oct. 1957, Clark Papers, archives, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
3 Ernest L. Wilkinson diary, 7 Mar. 1958, photocopy, David John Buerger Papers, Western Americana, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
4 Ibid., 7 July 1958;
Benson’s politics are in entries of 13 Sept., 11 Dec. 1957, 12 Feb., 2 May, 21-29 June 1958, 20 Oct. 1959, 29 Nov. 1960, and 13 May 1963.
5 F. Ross Peterson, "Utah Politics Since 1945," in Richard D. Poll et al., Utah’s History (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1978), 516.
6 Clark, memorandum of conversation with "Chairman Hopkin," Don Clyde, Lawrence Johnson, Hugh Colton, Howard J. Clegg, Ted Crawford, and Art Woolley, 18 Apr. 1958;
Clark farm diary, 5 June 1960;
Clark’s criticism of Benson’s policies appears in Clark office diary, 11 May 1953, 1 July 1957, 31 Mar. 1958, Clark Papers.
7 Thomas G. Alexander, The Forest Service and the LDS Church in the Mid-Twentieth Century: Utah National Forests as a Test Case (Ogden, UT: Weber State College Press, 1988), 7-8, 20-21.
8 Wilkinson diary, 9 Aug. 1961.
9 Clark office diary, 9 Apr. 1953;
Clark memoranda of his conversations with Benson, 21 Mar. 1955, 1 July 1957;
Clark, remarks to special Welfare Plan meeting, 1 Oct. 1955;
Clark to Benson, 21 Jan. 1953, 30 Sept. 1956, 19 July 1960, Clark Papers.
10 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, viii.
13 Robert H. Welch, The Blue Book of the John Birch Society (Belmont, MA: Western Islands, 1961), vii;
Welch, A Brief Introduction to the John Birch Society (Belmont, MA: John Birch Society, 1962);
John H. Rousselot, Beliefs and Principles of the John Birch Society (statement to Congress, 12 June 1962) (Belmont, MA: John Birch Society [1962]);
"What Is the John Birch Society? The Truth May Surprise You!" (paid advertisement), Salt Lake Tribune, 11 Dec. 1965, 18;
Welch, What Is the John Birch Society? (Belmont, MA: John Birch Society, 1970);
Robert W. Lee, "The John Birch Society At Age 25," in the Birch Society’s American Opinion 26 (Dec. 1983): 1;
Susan L. M. Huck, "Founding of the Society," and Robert W. Lee, "How Robert Welch Developed His Views on Conspiracy in America," American Opinion 28 (Mar. 1985): 16, 69-76, 153-72.
John Birch’s death, compare Welch, The Life of John Birch (Chicago: Regnery, 1954),
"Different Views on [John Birch’s] Death," New York Times, 4 Apr. 1961, 18, "Who Was John Birch?" Time 77 (14 Apr. 1961): 29,
"How John Birch Died," New York Herald Tribune, 25 Nov. 1962.
Knox Mellon Collection on the John Birch Society, Special Collections, Research Library, University of California at Los Angeles; William J. Grede papers (restricted until 1999)
14 David Caute, The Great Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978);
Robert K. Carr, The House Committee on Un-American Activities (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1952);
Samuel A. Stouffer, Communism, Conformity, and Civil Liberties: A Cross-section of the Nation Speaks Its Mind (New York: Doubleday, 1955);
Ralph S. Brown, Loyalty and Security: Employment Tests in the United States (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958);
John W. Caughey, In Clear and Present Danger: The Crucial State of Our Freedoms (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958);
Herbert L. Packer, Ex-Communist Witnesses: Four Studies in Fact Finding (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962);
Daniel Bell, ed., The Radical Right (New York: Doubleday, 1963);
J. Allen Broyles, The John Birch Society: Anatomy of a Protest (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964);
Richard Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965);
Donald J. Kemper, Decade of Fear: Senator Hennings and Civil Liberties (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1965);
Earl Latham, The Communist Controversy in Washington: From the New Deal to McCarthy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966);
Michael Paul Rogin, The Intellectuals and McCarthy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967);
Walter Goodman, The Committee: The Extraordinary Career of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1968);
Arthur V. Watkins [U.S. senator from Utah], Enough Rope: The Inside Story of the Censure of Senator Joe McCarthy By His Colleagues: The Controversial Hearings that Signaled the End of a Turbulent Career and a Fearsome Era in American Public Life (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969);
Allen J. Matusow, Joseph R. McCarthy (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970);
"The Era of the John Birch Society," in Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab, The Politics of Unreason: Right-Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970 (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 249-87;
Murray Burton Levin, Political Hysteria in America: The Democratic Capacity for Repression (New York: Basic Books, 1971);
Äthan G. Theoharis, Seeds of Repression: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of McCarthyism (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971);
David Brion Davis, ed., The Fear of Conspiracy: Images of Un-American Subversion From the Revolution to the Present (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1971), esp. 327-48.
Richard M. Freeland, The Truman Doctrine and the Origins of McCarthyism: Foreign Policy, Domestic Politics, and Internal Security, 1946-1948 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972);
Eric Bentley, Are You Now Or Have You Ever Been?: The Investigation of Show Business by the Un-American Activities Committee, 1947-1958 (New York: Harper and Row, 1972);
Richard O. Curry, Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972);
Cedric Beifrage, The American Inquisition, 1945-1960 (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973);
Robert Griffith and Äthan Theoharis, eds., The Specter: Original Essays on the Cold War and the Origins of McCarthyism (New York: New Viewpoints, 1974);
F. Ross Peterson, "McCarthyism in the Mountains, 1950-1954," in Thomas G. Alexander, ed., Essays On the American West, 1974-1975 (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University, 1976);
Michael R. Belknap, Cold War Justice: The Smith Act, the Communist Party, and American Civil Liberties (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977);
Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Random House, 1978);
Larry Ceplair and Steven Englund, The Inquisition in Hollywood: Politics in the Film Community, 1930-1960 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980);
Victor S. Navasky, Naming Names (New York: Viking Press, 1980);
Thomas C. Reeves, The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography (New York: Stein and Day, 1982);
Stanley I. Kutler, The American Inquisition: Justice and Injustice in the Cold War (New York: Hill and Wang, 1982);
Äthan G. Theoharis, ed., Beyond the Hiss Case: The FBI, Congress, and the Cold War (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982);
Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton, The Rosenberg File: A Search for the Truth (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983);
Peter L. Steinberg, The Great "Red Menace": United States Prosecution of American Communists, 1947-1952 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985);
Ellen Schrecker, No Ivory Tower: McCarthyism and the Universities (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986);
Robert Griffith, The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate, 2d. ed. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987);
Thomas G. Patterson, Meeting the Communist Threat: Truman to Reagan (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988);
M. J. Heale, American Anticommunism: Combating the Enemy Within, 1930-1970 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990);
Richard M. Fried, Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990);
Jeff Broadwater, Eisenhower and the Anti-Communist Crusade (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992);
Diana Trilling, "How McCarthy Gave Anti-Communism a Bad Name," Newsweek 121 (11 Jan. 1993): 32-33.
Agriculture, Benson reflected that concern in his The Threat of Communism [and] World Brotherhood, published by the LDS church’s Deseret Book Company in 1960.
15 Benson’s first official public endorsement of the Birch Society appeared in "Reed A. Benson Takes Post In Birch Society," Deseret News, 27 Oct. 1962, B-5;
"Reed Benson Takes Post With John Birch Group," Salt Lake Tribune, 27 Oct. 1962, 24;
"Benson-Birch Tie Disturbs Utahans [sic]," New York Times, 4 Nov. 1962, 65;
"Benson’s Praise of the Birchers," San Francisco Chronicle, 14 Mar. 1963, 16;
"Elder Benson Makes Statement," Deseret News "Church News," 16 Mar. 1963, 2;
The Pink Book of the John Birch Society (Belmont, MA: John Birch Society, 1963);
"The John Birch Society: A Report," Advertising Supplement to Los Angeles Times, 27 Sept. 1964, 14;
"Socialism Warning Sounded: Elder Benson Hits Liberals," Deserei News, 12 Feb. 1966, B-1.
"LDS Apostle Backs Up Birch Group," Salt Lake Tribune, 16 Jan. 1966, B-14.
16 "Goldwater Disagrees With John Birch Theories, Is Impressed by Members," Sacramento Bee, 30 Mar. 1961, A-16;
Russell Kirk’s statement about "fanatic fringe" appears in his and Benjamin L. Masse, "The Birchites," America: National Catholic Weekly Review 106 (17 Feb. 1962): 643-45;
Barry Goldwater introduced into Congressional Record—Senate 109 (1 Oct. 1963): 18453-55 a talk which lumped the Birch Society and the Ku Klux Klan with the "so-called radical right" (18454);
"Barry Disagrees With 3 Bircher Stands," Sacramento Bee, 22 Oct. 1963, A-6;
William F. Buckley, Jr., "Real Responsibility Lacking Still With Birchite Members," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 6 Aug. 1965, A-4
"Bouquet for Buckley," Christian Century 82 (25 Aug. 1965): 1028;
Buckley [with supporting contributions by Goldwater, Kirk, and others], "The John Birch Society and the Conservative Movement," National Review 17 (19 Oct. 1965): 914-20, 925-29;
Ronald Reagan’s statement about the Birch Society’s "lunatic fringe" is quoted in "Reagan Criticizes Birch Society and Its Founder," Los Angeles Times, 24 Sept. 1965, Pt. 1, 3, also quoted in Fletcher Knebel, "The GOP Attacks The John Birch Society," Look 29 (28 Dec. 1965): 74;
Goldwater to Harvey B. Schechter, 31 Oct. 1966,
Western Americana, Marriott Library. These anti-Birch critics had already established their conservative, anti-Communist credentials in Buckley and L. Brent Bozell, McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning (Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1954);
Buckley, The Committee and Its Critics: A Calm Review of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (New York: Putnam, 1962);
Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative (Shepherdsville, KY: Victor Publishing Co., 1960);
Russell Kirk, A Program for Conservatives (Chicago: H. Regnery, 1954);
Kirk, The American Cause (Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1957);
Ronald Reagan, with Richard G. Hubler, Where’s The Rest of Me? (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1965), 157-84, 192, 199-200, 297-312.
The books by Buckley, Kirk, and Goldwater appeared in the lists of "Approved Books" following The John Birch Society Bulletin (July 1961) in The White Book of The John Birch Society for 1961 (Belmont, MA: The John Birch Society, 1961).
17 Buckley, "Birch Society Members Indignant at Buckley," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 17 Aug. 1965, A-4;
The John Birch Society Bulletin [Dec. 1967]: 24-25;
Medford Evans, "Welch and Buckley" in the John Birch Society’s American Opinion 28 [Mar. 1985]: 89-106
Skousen, What Is Left? What Is Right?: A Study of Political Extremism [Salt Lake City: Freemen Institute, 1981], 22.
Jerreld L. Newquists specific denial that the John Birch Society is ultraconservative or right-wing in Jerrald [sic] L. Newquist, "Liberty Vs. Creeping Socialism: Warns Of Internal Threats," Deseret News, 21 Dec. 1961, A-12
18 Douglas Kirk Stewart, "An Analysis of the Celebrity Structure of the American Right," M.S. thesis, University of Utah, 1962, 6, 11, 25-26;
The Patriots (Cleveland, OH: Precis Press, 1963), 28;
National Council of Civic Responsibility, Press Release, 22 Sept. 1964, 1-5, copy in Williams papers;
Editors and Advisory Committee of the Birch Society’s American Opinion (1961-64);
Lee to Robert Welch, 19 Jan. 1961, Lee papers;
American Opinion 9 (Nov. 1966): inside front cover. Lee was Utah’s governor (1949-57) and Salt Lake City mayor (1960-72).
19 "Benson Took Birchite on Tours," Washington Post, 12 July 1961, D-11;
"The Council," The John Birch Society Bulletin (Feb. 1960): 2.
Russia, and Dew quotes (344)
20 Ezra Taft Benson, "Biographical Notes," Dec. 1961, and Benson’s "Dear Bob" letter, 10 Dec. 1970, Welch papers, archives,
21 "Benson Aims New Blast At M’Carthy," Salt Lake Tribune, 23 June 1954, 1.
22 Benson to H. Roland Tietjen, president of the Hawaiian LDS temple, 22 May 1962, archives, Lee Library.
23 interview with Byron Cannon Anderson, 18 Jan. 1993.
24 Wilkinson diary, 29 Nov. 1960. Gary James Bergera and Ronald Priddis, Brigham Young University: A House of Faith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1985), 203,
25 Byron Cannon Anderson interview; Directory: University of Utah, 1959-1960: Faculty, Students, Employees (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1959), 34.
26 Collectivism on the Campus: The Battle For the Mind in American Colleges (New York: Devin-Adair Co., 1955),
Robert Welch, "Through All the Days To Be," American Opinion 4 (June 1961): 34-35.
27 Max P. Peterson, "Ideology of the John Birch Society," M.S. thesis, Utah State University, 1966, 116, 132;
"Birchers Infiltrate Police, Trigger Freedom Issue," Salt Lake Tribune, 17 Nov. 1964, 13.
28 Benson, "The American Heritage of Freedom: A Plan of God," Improvement Era 64 (Dec. 1961): 955.
29 Frederick S. Buchanan diary, 27 Oct. 1961,
30 Wilkinson diary, 21, 29 Dec. 1961.
31 Benson, "Is There A Threat To The American Way of Life?" Deserei News "Church News," 23 Dec. 1961, 15, reprinted as The Internal Threat to the American Way of Life... Talk Given at the Shrine Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, December 11, 1961 (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1961), 30-31,
Roland L. Delorme and Raymond G. Mclnnis, eds., Antidemocratic Trends in Twentieth-Century America (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1969).
King, Benson Says," Deserei News, 16 Dec. 1961, B-5;
"Benson Rips King ’Challenge,’" Salt Lake Tribune, 16 Dec. 1961, 7.
32 "Benson Says JFK Soft on Reds," Los Angeles Herald and Express, 12 Dec. 1961, A-3;
"Kennedy Aides Held Soft on Reds," Los Angeles Times, 12 Dec. 1961, Pt. III, 1;
"U.S. Red Peril Emphasized By Elder Benson," Deseret News, 12 Dec. 1961, A-1, A -7;
"Benson Warns of ’Secret Alliance,’" Salt Lake Tribune, 12 Dec. 1961, 3. However, Benson’s talk itself made no reference to Kennedy.
33 O. Preston Robinson, editor and general manager of the Deseret News, to Hugh B. Brown, 14 Dec. 1961, "as per your request," in "Hugh B. Brown’s File on the John Birch Society," box 48, Edwin B. Firmage Papers, Western Americana, Marriott Library.
34 Brown to Mrs. Alicia Bingham, 28 Dec. 1961, carbon copy in "Hugh B. Brown’s File on the John Birch Society."
35 Buchanan diary, 22 Feb. 1962.
36 Brown, "Honor the Priesthood," Improvement Era 65 (June 1962): 450.
37 Buchanan diary, 7 Apr. 1962.
38 Brown to Morley Ross Hammond, 25 Apr. 1962, photocopy in Williams Papers.
39 "We Must Protect U.S.: Ezra Benson Sounds Warning," U.S. News and World Report 52 (23 Apr. 1962): 20.
40 Wilkinson diary, 3 June 1962, described a memorandum of what he was going to say privately to McKay on 6 June.
41 Wilkinson diary, 29 Oct. 1962, referred to a Democratic state convention "two years ago." However, in Buchanan diary, 27 Oct. 1961,
42 Brown to Gustive O. Larson, 11 Nov. 1962, in answer to Larson’s letter of 1 Nov., folder 12, box 10, Larson Papers, archives,
"Reed A. Benson Takes Post In Birch Society," Deser et News, 27 Oct. 1962, B-5;
"Reed Benson Takes Post With John Birch Group," Salt Lake Tribune, 27 Oct. 1962, 24.
43 Kenneth Keniston, Young Radicals: Notes on Committed Youth (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1968);
Benjamin Muse, The American Negro Revolution: From Nonviolence to Black Power, 1963-1967 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968);
Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1969);
Philip Slater, The Pursuit of Loneliness: American Culture at the Breaking Point (Boston: Beacon Press, 1970);
David Burner, Robert D. Marcus, and Thomas R. West, A Giants Strength: America in the 1960s (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971);
William L. O’Neill, Coming Apart: An Informal History of America in the 1960’s (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971);
James A. Geschwender, The Black Revolt: The Civil Rights Movement, Ghetto Uprisings, and Separatism (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971);
Thomas Powers, The War at Home: Vietnam and the American People, 1964-1968 (New York: Grossman, 1973);
Alexander Kendrick, The Wound Within: America in the Vietnam Years, 1945-1974 (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1974);
Tom Shachtman, Decade of Shocks: Dallas to Watergate, 1963-1974 (New York: Poseidon Press, 1974);
Donald D. Warren, The Radical Center: Middle Americans and the Politics of Alienation (South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1976);
Morris Dickstein, Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties (New York: Basic Books, 1977);
Charles R. Morris, A Time of Passion: America, 1960-1980 (New York: Harper and Row, 1984);
Allen J. Matusow, The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s (New York: Harper and Row, 1984);
George C. Herring, America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986);
Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (New York: Random House, 1988);
Kim McQuaid, The Anxious Years: America in the Vietnam-Watergate Era (New York: Basic Books, 1989);
Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, The Suicide of an Elite: American Internationalists and Vietnam (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990);
Charles DeBenedetti, An American Ordeal: The Antiwar Movement of the Vietnam Era (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990);
Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History, rev. ed. (New York: Viking Press, 1991).
44 Although Hugh B. Brown is not the focus of this essay, the dimensions of his own agenda as a church leader appear in Eugene E. Campbell and Richard Poll, Hugh B. Brown: His Life and Thought (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1975);
Edwin B. Firmage, ed., An Abundant Life: The Memoirs of Hugh B. Brown (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1988).
45 "Reed A. Benson Takes Post In Birch Society, Deseret News, 27 Oct. 1962, B-5;
"Reed Benson Takes Post With John Birch Group," Salt Lake Tribune, 27 Oct. 1962, 24;
"Ezra Benson’s Son Takes Birch Society Post," Sacramento Bee, 27 Oct. 1972, B-7;
"Benson-Birch Tie Disturbs Utahans [sic]," New York Times, 4 Nov. 1962, 65;
"LDS in Capital Rap Reed Benson Talk," Salt Lake Tribune, 15 Dec. 1962, 7;
"Reed Benson Replies to News Dispatch," Salt Lake Tribune, 18 Dec. 1962.
46 Richard P. Lindsay, on letterhead of Taylorsville Second Ward Bishopric, to David O. McKay, Henry D. Moyle, and Hugh B. Brown, 20 Mar. 1962,
Deseret News 1993-1994 Church Almanac (Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1992), 36.
47 Hugh B. Brown to Richard D. Poll, 26 Nov. 1962, in response to Poll to Brown, 20 Nov. 1962, photocopies in my possession.
48 Henry D. Taylor statement, as reported in Richard M. Taylor to Richard D. Poll, 7 Nov. 1962,
First Quorum of Seventy in 1976.
49 "Vandals, Reds, Loaded Queries Plague Utah’s Bircher Benson," Portland Oregonian, 19 May 1963, 16, with photo of Reed beside the swastika vandalism.
50 "Benson Son Leads Rightists in Utah," New York Times, 19 May 1963, 55;
"Benson’s Son Claims He Has Tripled Utah Birch Membership," Washington Post, 20 May 1963, A-1;
T. George Harris, "The Rampant Right Invades the GOP," Look 27 (16 July 1963): 20;
"Benson and Birch: Politics Or Religion?" University of Utah Daily Utah Chronicle, 3 Dec. 1964, 2;
"Utahn Heads Birch Office in Capital," Deseret News, 16 Dec. 1964, A-13;
Jules Witcover, "Bircher Benson," The New Republic 152 (8 May 1965): 8-9;
"Washington Report... Birchers Settle In," Life 58 (18 June 1965): 43;
"Birch Society Opens Washington Office Friday," New York Times, 14 Sept. 1965, 20;
"John Birch Society Representative Reed Benson," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 19 Sept. 1965, A-6;
"Mormons and Politics: Benson’s Influence Helps Keep Growing Church on Conservative Track," Wall Street Journal, 8 Aug. 1966, 1;
"Gets Birch Job," Salt Lake Tribune, 19 May 1967, B-4;
Reed A. Benson to Dean M. Hansen, 22 May 1967, in Dean Maurice Hansen, "An Analysis of the 1964 Idaho Second Congressional District Election Campaign," M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1967, 50, 221.
51 Reed A. Benson to Tom Anderson, "PERSONAL AND CONFIDENTIAL,’" 3 July 1963, Anderson Papers, Knight Library, University of Oregon at Eugene.
52 Referred to in minutes, LDS archives, of meeting on 15 March 1966 of David O. McKay, N. Eldon Tanner, Joseph Fielding Smith, and Mark E. Petersen in Huntsville, Utah.
53 Byron Cannon Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," senior paper, University of Utah, June 1966, 8-13,
Alison Bethke, "BF [Before Falwell], EB [Ezra Benson]," senior paper, Professor Marvin Hill’s History 490, Brigham Young University, 9 Apr. 1984, 6, 8, photocopy in Williams Papers.
Byron Cannon Anderson’s 1966 paper,
1970,
Byron Cannon Anderson, "Open Letter to Utah Citizens," Mar. 1966, folder 5, box 184, Frank E. Moss papers, Western Americana, Marriott Library;
"Young, But Eager, He Looks for Political Chance," Deserei News, 30 Sept. 1965, B-1;
"Welch Raps ’Senseless’ U.S. Policy," Salt Lake Tribune, 8 Apr. 1966, B-1;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah";
"David O. McKay: Prophet-Patriot," and staff list, Utah Independent, 12 Feb. 1970, 1-2;
"Birch Society PR Speaker," Utah Independent, 9 Apr. 1970, 1;
"What Is The John Birch Society," Utah Independent, 28 May 1971, 6-7, 9;
"The Communist Attack on The John Birch Society," Utah Independent, 21 Apr. 1972, 4-7;
"Birchers Ask Economic Sanctions on Communists," Utah Independent, 19 May 1972, 4;
Birch headquarters in Belmont, Massachusetts, which was officially named "The Birch Log" as of Utah Independent, 5 Aug. 1976, 3.
54 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 366-67.
Peterson, "Ideology of the John Birch Society."
55 Kjell Nilsen, letters to the editor, Daily Utah Chronicle, 22 Oct. 1962, 2, and 26 Oct. 1962, 2, to which Allen Mickelsen and Jim Wanek responded in Daily Utah Chronicle, 24 Oct. 1962, 2, and 25 Oct. 1962, 2.
56 Richard D. Poll to Hugh B. Brown, 13 Dec. 1962, photocopy in my possession;
"The Council," The John Birch Society Bulletin (Feb. 1960): 2;
John Birch Society’s American Opinion.
57 Wilkinson diary, 4 Nov. 1962;
Birch Society, of Benson, and of Pearson. Pearson’s political tracts included The Constitution versus the Bill of Rights (Provo, UT: N.d.);
Freedom of Speech and Press (Provo, UT: N.d.);
Socialism and the United Order or the Law of Consecration (Provo, UT: 1962[?]);
The No-Plan Plan (Provo, UT: [1967]);
Public School Philosophy—State Religion (Provo, UT: 1967[?]);
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 196,
58 "Church Sets Policy on Birch Society," Deseret News, 4 Jan. 1963, B-1;
"Mormon Head Clarifies Stand on Birch Society: McKay Lashes at Those Who Try to Align Church With Group’s Partisan Views," Los Angeles Times, 4 Jan. 1963, Pt. 1, 5;
"LDS Leaders Reject Any Idea of Link Between Church, Birch Society," Sacramento Bee, 4 Jan. 1963, A-10;
"Birch Tie Flatly Denied By LDS," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 4 Jan. 1963;
"Reprint of Statement From the First Presidency," The Messenger: Distributed By the Presiding Bishopric of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, Feb. 1963, 1.
59 "Ezra Taft Benson Addresses Rally," Deseret News, 7 Jan. 1963, A-3;
Drew Pearson, "Benson Embarrasses His Church," Washington Post, 22 Jan. 1963, B-23;
"Church Embarrassed Over Ezra Taft Benson Stand," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 22 Jan. 1963, 4.
60 Nancy Smith Lowe to David O. McKay, 10 Jan. 1963, MS 5971 #1, LDS archives, photocopy in my possession.
61 Moyle to J. D. Williams, 9 Jan. 1963, Williams Papers. Frank H. Jonas,
62 Wilkinson diary, 31 Jan. 1963.
Wilkinson to Richard D. Poll, 7 Jan. 1963,
63 "Bircher" and "Birchers" are terms members of the Birch Society apply to themselves, as in The John Birch Society Bulletin (Oct. 1992): 6, 14, 20.
64 Middlemiss to Nancy Smith Lowe, 15 Feb. 1963, MS 5971 #2, LDS archives, photocopy in my possession;
also identical statement in Middlemiss to Robert W. Lee, 1 Aug. 1963, in Congressional Record—Senate 109 (6 Aug. 1963): 14172;
"Stand of LDS On Birch In ’Record,’" Salt Lake Tribune, 8 Aug. 1963, A-2;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 11. Before becoming Reed Benson’s assistant in Washington, D.C., Robert W. Lee served as a chapter leader, section leader, and volunteer coordinator of the Birch Society in Salt Lake City.
"S.L. Man Takes Capital Post With Birchers," Salt Lake Tribune, 11 Nov. 1964, B-11.
65 The John Birch Society Bulletin (Feb. 1963): 28-29;
George Rucker memorandum, 17 June 1963, folder 5, box 636, Moss Papers.
66 Benson, The Red Carpet... (Derby, CT: Monarch Books, 1963), inscribed to "Eldon" on 2-12-63, copy in Special Collections, Lee Library;
G. Homer Durham, N. Eldon Tanner: His Life and Service (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1982), 57-89.
Benson’s book was originally published during 1962 in Salt Lake City by Bookcraft.
67 "’LDS Oppose’ Birch Group," Salt Lake Tribune, 5 Mar. 1963, 5;
"Brown Says Church Opposed To Birch Society, Methods," Provo Daily Herald, 5 Mar. 1963, 12.
68 "Benson Declares His Birch Society Support Has No Bearing on Church, Sacramento Bee, 14 Mar. 1963, A-2;
"Elder Benson Makes Statement," Deseret News " Church News," 16 Mar. 1963, 2.
69 Wilkinson diary, 13 May 1963.
70 "Benson Clarifies Views On Birch Society Stand," Salt Lake Tribune, 21 Mar. 1963, A-11;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 10-11;
U.S. senator Frank E. Moss to U.S. representative Ken W. Dyal, 2 Mar. 1966, folder 5, box 184, Moss Papers.
71 "CROSS REFERENCE SHEET," Mrs. Joyce M. Sowerwine letter, 25 Nov. 1966, "re: Claire Middlemiss & John Birch Society," in "Hugh B. Brown’s File on the John Birch Society."
72 Eugene Campbell’s typed draft of Hugh B. Brown biography, chapter titled, "Responsibility Without Authority—The 1st Counselor Years," 11, Campbell Papers.
73 "The Movement to Impeach Earl Warren," The John Birch Society Bulletin (Aug. 1961): 5;
George T. Boyd (associate director of the LDS Institute of Religion in Los Angeles) to the First Presidency (with copy to Benson), 14 Dec. 1961, photocopy in my possession, regarding "’Hang Earl Warren’ Then—an Apology," Salt Lake Tribune, 14 Dec. 1961, A-4.
74 Buchanan diary, 10 Apr. 1963.
75 J. D. Williams to James M. Whitmire, 21 May 1963,
76 George T. Boyd, associate director of the LDS institute of religion in Los Angeles, to "Dick" [Richard D. Poll], undated but written ca. 18 Oct. 1961 and answered 24 Oct., photocopy in my possession.
77 Benson, "Let Us Live to Keep Men Free": An Address... at a Patriotic Testimonial Banquet for Robert Welch, sponsored by Friends and Members of The John Birch Society at the Hollywood Palladium, Los Angeles, California, September 23, 1963 (Los Angeles: N.p, 1963);
"2000 Hail Welch As ’Great Patriot,"’ Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, 24 Sept. 1963, A-18;
"Birch Society Dinner: Elder Benson Hits A-Treaty," Deseret News, 24 Sept. 1963, A-4;
"Benson Extols Founder of John Birch Society," Salt Lake Tribune, 24 Sept. 1963, 2;
"Birch Chief Applauded by Benson," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 24 Sept. 1963, 4;
Richard Swanson, "McCarthyism in Utah," M.A. thesis, Brigham Young University, 1977, 138-39.
University of Washington in "Ezra Taft Benson Sees Reds ’Everywhere,’ Lauds Birchers," Seattle Times, 1 May 1963, 15.
78 "Benson Urges Americans: ’Stand Up For Freedom No Matter What The Cost,’" The Freedom Press, 9 Oct. 1963, 7-8, reprint (Belmont, MA: The John Birch Society, 1963), copy in folder 4, box 245, Moss Papers. The Birch Society reprinted Benson’s talk.
79 Welch, The Politician (Belmont, MA: Belmont Publishing Co., 1963), 278;
William P. Hoar, "Welch and Eisenhower," in the John Birch Society’s American Opinion 28 (Mar. 1985): 54-55.
Eisenhower never sued Welch for libel or defamation of character, but for a libel suit against the Birch Society, see Elmer Gertz, Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc.: The Storp of a Landmark Libel Case (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992).
80 Benson to Smith, 31 July 1963, in copy of Welch’s The Politician, Special Collections, Lee Library;
Hansen, "Analysis of the 1964 Idaho Second Congressional District Election Campaign," 50.
81 Harding speech, Congressional Record—House 109 (25 Sept. 1963): 17208-209, reprinted as Ezra Taft Benson’s Support of John Birch Society Is Criticized (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963);
"Idaho Congressman Hits Benson Speech," and "Birch Official Gives Statement on Benson Talk," Deseret News, 26 Sept. 1963, A-3;
"Legislator, a Mormon, Scores Benson for Birch Activities," New York Times, 26 Sept. 1963, 29;
"Mr. Harding’s Risk," Idaho State Journal, 27 Sept. 1963, 4;
"Idaho Congressman Hits Benson Speech," Deseret News, 26 Sept. 1963, A-6;
"Ezra Benson And The Mormon Church," Lewiston (Ida.) Morning Tribune, 29 Sept. 1963, 4;
Hansen, "Analysis of the 1964 Idaho Second Congressional District Election Campaign," 51;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 11-12, 54.
82 Ralph Harding to Richard Poll, 30 Sept. 1963, photocopy in my possession.
83 Eisenhower to Harding, 7 Oct. 1963, photocopy in folder 2, box 4, David S. King Papers, Western Americana, Marriott Library, and in folder 22, box 5, Buerger Papers. Eisenhower’s letter was first quoted in "Ike, LDS Leaders Thank Harding For Anti-Birch, Benson Speech," Idaho State Journal, 20 Feb. 1964, 1;
"Ike Praises Idaho Solon For Benson Criticism," Salt Lake Tribune, 21 Feb. 1964, A-4.
84 "Birchers Reply to Harding On Benson’s Coast Talk," Salt Lake Tribune, 26 Sept. 1963, A-3.
85 Lee to Ralph R. Harding, 30 Sept. 1963,
Ralph A. Britsch to Ralph R. Harding, 8 Oct. 1963, photocopies in folder 2, box 4, King Papers.
86 Reported in Richard D. Poll to Ralph Harding, 31 Oct. 1963, photocopy in my possession.
87 "Harassment Campaign Follows Political Argument," Provo Daily Herald, 24 Nov. 1963, 10. For the Bircher tactic of harassment phone calls, see Peterson, "Ideology of the John Birch Society," 115.
88 Benson, "Be Not Deceived," Improvement Era 66 (Dec. 1963): 1063-65.
89 Wilkinson diary, 4 Oct. 1963;
Brown to Gustive O. Larson, 2 Oct. 1963, copy in folder 15, box 11, Larson Papers, also copy in Campbell Papers.
90 "Elder Benson To Direct Europe Mission," Deseret News, 24 Oct. 1963, A-1;
Improvement Era 66 (Dec. 1963): 1065;
"Mormons To Send Benson Overseas," New York Times, 25 Oct. 1963, 18;
"Apostle Benson Denies Being Sent Into ’Exile’ for Political Views," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 29 Oct. 1963, A-7;
"Mormon Church Sends Benson to Europe," U.S. News and World Report 55 (Nov. 1963): 12;
"Mormon Church Is Gaining in Strength Despite Tensions," New York Times, 27 Dec. 1965, 18;
Hansen, "Analysis of the 1964 Idaho Second Congressional District Election Campaign," 52;
Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 372.
91 "Church Leader Rebuffs Self-Styled Patriots," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 26 Oct. 1963, 9;
"President Brown Supports U.N., Hits Extremists," Deseret News, 26 Oct. 1963, B-1.
92 "Stake Conference Assignments," Deseret News " Church News," 19 Oct. 1963, 4;
"Benson, Graham Rip Wheat Sale," Deseret News, 28 Oct. 1963, A-6;
"Benson Says Black is Red," Daily Utah Chronicle, 29 Oct. 1963, 1.
93 "Harding Says Benson Move ’Wise,’" Idaho Daily Statesman, 1 Nov. 1963, 20.
94 Ralph Harding to Richard D. Poll, 6 Nov. 1963, photocopy in my possession.
95 "Benson Says: New Duties Not ’Rebuke,’" Salt Lake Tribune, 29 Oct. 1963, A-4;
"Church Denies Mission Rumors," Deseret News, 21 Feb. 1964, A-8;
"Letter Denies Rebuke in Benson Call," Salt Lake Tribune, 22 Feb. 1964, C-11.
96 Robert R. McKay to Ralph R. Harding, 18 Oct. 1963, photocopy in folder 2, box 4, King Papers, and in folder 22, box 5, Buerger Papers;
LDS Leaders Thank Harding For Anti-Birch, Benson Speech," Idaho State Journal, 20 Feb. 1964, 1;
"Ike Praises Idaho Solon For Benson Criticism," Salt Lake Tribune, 21 Feb. 1964, A-4;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 12.
Robert McKay’s letter was printed in full in "Bill Hall’s Political Scratchpad," Idaho State Journal, 23 Feb. 1964, 4.
Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 372.
Robert R. McKay, see Francis M. Gibbons, David O. McKay: Apostle to the World, Prophet of God (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co. 1986), 333;
Improvement Era 69 (Dec. 1966): 1131, 1152;
Improvement Era 70 (June 1967): 22, 80, 109;
Improvement Era 70 (Dec. 1967): 33, 87, 107;
Improvement Era 71 (Dec. 1968): 34, 108;
Improvement Era 72 (June 1969): 116;
Improvement Era 72 (Dec. 1969): 24, 110.
97 "Ike, LDS Leaders Thank Harding For Anti-Birch, Benson Speech," Idaho State Journal, 20 Feb. 1964, 1.
98 Brown statement to Harriman and Richard D. Poll in Salt Lake City, 25 Oct. 1963, quoted in Poll’s letter to D. Michael Quinn, 13 Aug. 1992.
Provo Daily Herald, 27 Oct. 1963, 3.
99 "President Brown Supports U.N., Hits Extremists," Deseret News, 26 Oct. 1963, B-1.
100 Smith to Harding, 30 Oct. 1963, photocopy in folder 2, box 4, King Papers, and in folder 22, box 5, Buerger Papers.
101 Clark King and Richard Littlefield in Daily Utah Chronicle, 30 Oct. 1963, 4,
Frank G. Adams and Gary Henrichsen (who used the phrase) in 4 Nov. 1963, 2,
King and Littlefield in 6 Nov. 1963, 4, who were in turn rebutted by Corydon Hammond in 8 Nov. 1963, 4, who was answered by King and Littlefield in 14 Nov. 1963,: 2.
Daily Utah Chronicle published a cartoon (31 Oct. 1963, 4)
Benson (21 Nov. 1963, 2).
102 Hugh B. Brown to Ernest Cook, 22 Nov. 1963,
103 "Group Decides Against Picketing Benson Talk," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 3 Dec. 1963, A-7.
104 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 372-73.
105 Benson, "We Must Become Alerted and Informed: An Address by Ezra Taft Benson At A Public Patriotic Meeting," Logan, Utah, 13 Dec. 1963, 2, transcript, Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City.
107 Benson, "We Must Become Alerted and Informed," 10;
"Elder Benson Links Reds to [Civil] Rights Furor," Deseret News, 14 Dec. 1963, B-5;
"Communism Moving In on U.S., Benson Warns," Salt Lake Tribune, 14 Dec. 1963, 28.
Compare with Ross R. Barnett, governor of Mississippi, "The Rape Of Our Constitution and Civil Rights," in the Birch Society’s American Opinion 6 (Sept. 1963): 20-23;
John Rousselot, "Civil Rights: Communist Betrayal Of A Good Cause," American Opinion 7 (Feb. 1964): 1-11.
108 J. Edgar Hoover, remarks to the Pennsylvania Society in New York City, 12 Dec. 1964, in J. Edgar Hoover on Communism (New York: Random House, 1969), 130 (emphasis in original).
"Hoover Asks Vigil Over Extremists: Warns on ’Opportunists’ in the Rights Movement," New York Times, 13 Dec. 1964, 79.
109 "NAACP Calls S.L. Protest Over Rights," Salt Lake Tribune, 5 Oct. 1963, 32;
"Give Full Civil Equality to All, LDS Counselor Brown Asks," and "Negro Group Lauds LDS Rights View," Salt Lake Tribune, 7 Oct. 1963, 1, 6;
Jeff Nye, "Memo from a Mormon: In Which a Troubled Young Man Raises the Question of His Church’s Attitude Toward Negroes," Look 27 (22 Oct. 1963): 74-79.
Armand L. Mauss, "Mormonism and Secular Attitudes Toward Negroes," Pacific Sociological Review 9 (Fall 1966): 91-99;
Dennis L. Lythgoe, "Negro Slavery in Utah," Utah Historical Quarterly 39 (Winter 1971): 40-54;
Brian Walton, "A University Dilemma: B.Y.U. and the Blacks," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 6 (Spring 1971): 31-36;
Lester E. Bush, Jr., "Mormonism’s Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 8 (Spring 1973): 11-68;
Ronald K. Esplin, "Brigham Young and Denial of the Priesthood to Blacks: An Alternative View," Brigham Young University Studies 19 (Spring 1979): 394-402;
William G. Hartley, "Saint Without Priesthood: The Collected Testimonies of Ex-Slave Samuel D. Chambers," and Newel G. Bringhurst, "Elijah Abel and the Changing Status of Blacks within Mormonism," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 12 (Summer 1979): 13-21, 22-36;
Newell G. Bringhurst, Saints, Slaves, and Blacks: The Changing Place of Black People Within Mormonism (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981);
Armand L. Mauss, "The Fading of the Pharoah’s Curse: The Decline and Fall of the Priesthood Ban against Blacks in the Mormon Church," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 14 (Fall 1981): 10-45;
Lester E. Bush, Jr., and Armand Mauss, eds., Neither White Nor Black: Mormon Scholars Confront the Race Issue in a Universal Church (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1984);
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 297-303;
Jessie L. Embry, "Separate but Equal? Black Branches, Genesis Groups, or Integrated Wards?" and Mark L. Grover, "The Mormon Priesthood Revelation and the Sao Paulo, Brazil Temple," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 23 (Spring 1990): 11-37, 39-53.
110 Benson, "We Must Become Alerted and Informed," 8, 9, 10.
111 Drew Pearson, "Benson’s Cure for Communism," Washington Post, 4 Jan. 1964, D-31, reprinted as "Ezra Taft Benson Hints: ’It Is Time To Revolt,"’ in such newspapers as the Times-Democrat, 4 Jan. 1964.
112 "Setting The Record Straight," Fullerton News Tribune, 11 Jan. 1964, 24, quoted in Salt Lake City Citizens Information Committee, Comments and Corrections, No. 3 (15 Jan. 1968): 8.
113 Benson, "We Must Become Alerted and Informed," 10-11;
"Face Facts of Red Peril, Benson Asks," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 14 Dec. 1963, 6;
"Benson Urges Vigorous Battle On Communism," Logan Herald-Journal, 15 Dec. 1963, 1, 3.
114 Frank E. Moss to Ray R. Murdock, 19 Feb. 1964, and Moss to Hugh B. Brown, 19 Feb. 1964, folder 3, box 122, Moss Papers.
115 "CROSS REFERENCE SHEET," Raoul P. Smith, Keith L. Seegmiller, and Ralph Harding letters, Feb. 1964, in "Hugh B. Brown’s File on the John Birch Society."
116 Wilkinson diary, 14 Dec. 1963;
Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 372,
117 Wilkinson diary, 14 Dec. 1963;
Joseph Fielding Smith to Congressman Ralph Harding, 23 Dec. 1963, photocopy in folder 2, box 4, King Papers, and in folder 22, box 5, Buerger Papers.
"Ike, LDS Leaders Thank Harding For Anti-Birch, Benson Speech," Idaho State Journal, 20 Feb. 1964, 1;
"Ike Praises Idaho Solon For Benson Criticism," Salt Lake Tribune, 21 Feb. 1964, A-4;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 12.
118 "Ike Praises Idaho Solon For Benson Criticism," Salt Lake Tribune, 21 Feb. 1964, A-4.
119 "Birch Society Reviewed By Prof. Louis Midgley," Brigitám Young University Daily Universe, 22 May 1964, 2;
David O. McKay to Earl C. Crockett, 4 June 1964, Wilkinson Papers, photocopy in my possession;
Louis Midgley to Ray C. Hillam, 11 Aug. 1966, folder 10, Hillam Papers, archives, Lee Library, and box 34, Buerger Papers;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 196-97.
120 Benson, An Internal Threat Today (Belmont, MA: American Opinion [1964]);
Birch Society’s American Opinion 7 (Oct. 1964): cover page and 43-44, 97;
Ezra Taft Benson, "The Christ and the Constitution," American Opinion 7 (Dec. 1964): 41-45.
121 Jack Anderson, "Reed Benson Spreads Birch Gospel," Washington Post, 15 Jan. 1965, B-13.
122 Benson, Title of Liberty, comp. Mark A. Benson (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1964),
Robert Welch on 1, 12, 36, 39, and 40.
Compare to Benson, So Shall Ye Reap, comp. Reed A. Benson (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1960), with references to Communism on 163, 208, and 328.
123 "Solon Embarrassed By Letter Publication," Deseret News, 21 Feb. 1964, A-8;
’"Release Unauthorized/Solon Says of Letters," Salt Lake Tribune, 22 Feb. 1964, C-11;
"Idaho Writers Say Letters Were Widely Circulated," and "Bill Hall’s Political Scratchpad," Idaho State Journal, 23 Feb. 1964, 1, 4;
"How Could He Lose?" Idaho Daily Statesman, 5 Nov. 1964, 1-2;
Harding to Frank H. Jonas, 8 Dec. 1964, Jonas Papers;
Jack Anderson, "Birch Society Influence Defeated Ralph Harding," Blackfoot News, 15 Jan. 1965, 4,
"Reed Benson Spreads Birch Gospel" in Washington Post, 15 Jan. 1965, B-13;
Lynn Broadhead to Dean M. Hansen, 15 June 1967;
Swanson, "McCarthyism in Utah," 143.
124 Hansen, "Analysis of the 1964 Idaho Second Congressional District Election Campaign," 53, 57, 183, 185-86, 206-10.
125 Anderson, "Reed Benson Spreads Birch Gospel."
125 Anderson, "Reed Benson Spreads Birch Gospel."
126 Clare Middlemiss to Kent Brennan (ca. 20 Jan. 1965), quoted in Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 14;
"No Church Rebuke Given to Bensons," Spokane Daily Chronicle, and reprinted by the Salt Lake City Citizens Information Committee, Comments and Corrections, No. 3 (15 Jan. 1968): 8,
127 Brown to Mrs. W. E. Daddow, 23 Feb. 1965, LDS archives, photocopy in my possession.
128 "NAACP Calls March for LDS Appeal," Salt Lake Tribune, 7 Mar. 1965, A-18;
"Marchers Pray At LDS Doorstep," Daily Utah Chronicle, 8 Mar. 1965, 1.
129 J. Edgar Hoover, remarks to the Pennsylvania Society in New York City, 12 Dec. in J. Edgar Hoover on Communism, 130;
New York Times, 13 Dec. 1964, 79.
130 "Give Full Civil Equality to All, LDS Counselor Brown Asks," Salt Lake Tribune, 7 Oct. 1963, 1;
Hugh B. Brown, "The Fight Between Good and Evil," Improvement Era 66 (Dec. 1963): 1058;
Sterling M. McMurrin, "A Note on the 1963 Civil Rights Statement," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 12 (Summer 1979): 60-63.
131 "Benson Ties Rights Issue to Reds in Mormon Rift," Washington Post, 13 Apr. 1965, A-5.
132 "President McKay Emphasizes Individual," with subheading for Elder Benson’s talk: "Restored Gospel," Salt Lake Tribune, 7 Apr. 1965, A-5;
Era 68 (June 1965): 539. However, in 1968 Deseret Book Company published (and reprinted in 1969)
133 Wilkinson diary, 7 Apr. 1965;
Richard B. Wirthlin (associate professor, economics), "Events Related To the Covert Surveillance of Faculty Members, Subsequent Investigations of and Accusations Against Said Faculty, and Attempts to Resolve the Matter ’Within the Family,"’ 1, folder 1, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers;
John P. Sanders statement, 5 Aug. 1966, folder 10, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers.
BYU for 1960 above, and below for 1966, 1969, and 1977.
134 David J. Whittaker and Chris McClellan, "The Collection: Description," 1, register of the Hillam Papers;
Stephen Hays Russell to Ernest L. Wilkinson, 26 Apr. 1965, Wilkinson diary also referred on 11 July 1965 to "papers" which were "proof of accusations against Richard Poll."
135 Richard D. Poll, This Trumpet Gives An Uncertain Sound: A Review of W. Cleon Skousen’s THE NAKED COMMUNIST (Provo, UT: Author, 1962), 3,
136 Brown to Richard D. Poll, 10 Jan. 1962, photocopy in my possession;
Brown’s role in this anti-Skousen publication also appears in Poll to George T. Boyd, 24 Oct. 1961, Poll to Hugh B. Brown, 18 Dec., 23 Dec. 1961, 6 Jan. 1962, photocopies in my possession;
Poll memorandum to Ernest L. Wilkinson, "Subject: Correspondence with President Brown on the Anti-Communist Problem," 23 Dec. 1961, Wilkinson Papers, photocopy in my possession;
David O. McKay, "Preach the Word," Improvement Era 62 (Dec. 1959): 912.
137 "Faculty Members Deplore ’Fanaticism’ of Booklet," Provo Daily Herald, 23 July 1964, 14;
"None Dare Call It Treason Causes Sincere Concern," Brigham Young University Daily Universe, 23 July 1964, 2;
"Students Take Issue With ’None Dare Call It Treason’ Critics," Brigham Young University Daily Universe, 28 July 1964, 2;
"Poll Answers Student Letters," Brigham Young University Daily Universe, 30 July 1964, 2.
138 "Birchers Extend Membership Drive to East Coast," New York Times, 25 Oct. 1964, 81
139 Ernest L. Wilkinson to Mark Benson, 27 Apr. 1965, Wilkinson Papers, photocopy in my possession;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 203, for other quotes from the letter.
140 Leon Johnson, "Benson Told A ’Damned Lie,’" Daily Utah Chronicle, 12 Apr. 1965, 2,
"President McKay Emphasizes Individual," with subheading for Elder Benson’s talk: "Restored Gospel," Salt Lake Tribune, 7 Apr. 1965, A-5, and discussion below.
Langston Hughes, Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1962).
Benson maintained this view despite the previously published findings of Wilson Record, Race and Radicalism: The NAACP and the Communist Party in Conflict (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1964), 170,
141 "Reed Benson Says Welch Was Correct in Calling Eisenhower Communist," Provo Daily Herald, 22 Apr. 1965, 2.
142 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 391.
143 "Critical of Church: NAACP Studies Action," Deseret News, 2 July 1965, A-6.
144 "Benson Ties Rights Issue to Reds in Mormon Rift," Washington Post, 13 Apr. 1965, A-5;
Seattle Times, 5 May 1965, 13;
"NAACP Asks Foreign Bar of Missionaries," Daily Utah Chronicle, 6 May 1965, 1, 3, 4;
Journal History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 May 1965, 6, Microforms, Marriott Library. I could not find any reference to this in Deseret News or Salt Lake Tribune for May.
145 California Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, Violence in the City: An End or A Beginning? A Report (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission, 1965);
Jerry Cohen, Burn, Baby, Burn! The Los Angeles Race Riot, August, 1965 (New York: Dutton, 1966);
David O. Sears, The Los Angeles Riot Study: The Politics of Discontent: Blocked Mechanisms of Grievance Redress and the Psychology of the New Urban Black Man (Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, 1967);
Robert E. Conot, Rivers of Blood, Years of Darkness: Tl’e Unforgettable Classic Account of the Watts Riot (New York: Morrow, 1968);
U.S. Congress, Subversive Influences in Riots, Looting, and Burning: Hearings Before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Ninetieth Congress, First (Second) Session, 7 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1968-69), vols. 1 and 3 on the Watts riot;
United States, Kerner Commission, Report (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1968);
Lillian R. Boehme, Carte Blanche For Chaos (New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House, 1970);
Ralph W. Conant, The Prospects for Revolution: A Study of Riots, Civil Disobedience, and Insurrection in Contemporary America (New York: Harper’s Magazine Press, 1971);
David O. Sears, The Politics of Violence: The New Urban Blacks and the Watts Riot (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973);
James W. Button, Black Violence: Political Impact of the 1960s Riots (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978).
146 Reed A. Benson, "Memo to the Utah Chapters," 2 Sept. 1965, on letterhead of the John Birch Society, photocopy in Williams Papers;
Quinn G. McKay to J. D. Williams, 20 May 1966, Williams Papers.
147 Quinn G. McKay statement, 25 Apr. 1966, in J. Kenneth Davies, Political Extremism Under the Spotlight (Provo, UT: Young Democrats and Young Republicans of Brigham Young University, 1966), 21.
McKay named Reed Benson specifically in his letter to J. D. Williams, 20 May 1966, Williams Papers.
148 D. Richard Pine and Charles R. Armour to "All Coordinators, Section Leaders and Chapter Leaders in California," 17 Aug. 1965,
D. Richard Pine to "Coordinators, Section Leaders and Chapter Leaders—L.A. County," 1 Sept. 1965, in Harvey B. Schechter, How To Listen to a John Birch Society Speaker, 3d. ed. rev. (New York: Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith, 1967), 25-26;
Benjamin R. Epstein and Arnold Forster, The Radical Right: Report on the John Birch Society and Its Allies (New York: Random House, 1967), 12;
Lipset and Raab, Politics of Unreason, 268. For the position of Major Coordinator, see Welch, The Blue Book of the John Birch Society, 152.
149 The John Birch Society Bulletin (Sept. 1965): cover and 23.
The October Bulletin (dated 30 Sept. 1965): 2,
150 David Leslie Brewer, "Utah Elites and Utah Racial Norms," Ph.D. diss., University of Utah, 1966, 143.
151 L. Brent Goates, Harold B. Lee: Prophet & Seer (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1985), 378.
152 Campbell, "Responsibility Without Authority—The 1st Counselor Years," 8.
153 "NAACP Says ’Too Fantastic’ Rumors of Demonstrations," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 27 Sept. 1965, 20;
"Race Riots in Utah?" Daily Utah Chronicle, 28 Sept. 1965, 5.
154 "NAACP Chapter Claims Riot Report ’Malicious,’" Ogden Standard-Examiner, 28 Sept. 1965, A-6;
the second part is from the version in "Rumors of Riot Hit By Area NAACP," Deserei News, 28 Sept. 1965, B-1;
"NAACP Assails Rumors of Protest at LDS Meet," Salt Lake Tribune, 29 Sept. 1965, 18.
155 Schechter, How To Listen to a John Birch Society Speaker, 24;
Barbara Hogan, The Shake-Up America Campaign: Who’s Who and Whaťs What in the Massive John Birch Society Propaganda Effort to Fan the Flames of Racial Tension (Washington, D.C.: Institute for American Democracy [1967]
156 Reed Benson and Robert W. Lee, "The Federalist" (concerning Watts), and Robert H. Montgomery, "From the North," (concerning immigration), in the John Birch Society’s American Opinion 8 (Oct. 1965): 65-66, 69-70;
Gary Allen and Bill Richardson, "Los Angeles: Hell In The City of The Angels," American Opinion 8 (Sept. 1965): 1-14.
157 The John Birch Society Bulletin (Oct. 1965): 2.
158 "Birchers As Group, Unwelcome," Deserei News, 27 Oct. 1965, F-1;
"Bennett Joins in Rebuke of John Birch Society," Salt Lake Tribune, 27 Oct. 1965, A-4.
159 Congressional Record—Senate 109 (6 Aug. 1963): 14172;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 10-11.
160 Middlemiss to Russell F. Dickey, 8 Dec. 1965, photocopy in Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," appendix.
161 Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 15.
162 Board of Trustees, Executive Committee minutes, 16 Dec. 1965, archives, Brigham Young University, photocopy in my possession;
Wilkinson diary, 21 Dec. 1965;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 197;
N. Eldon Tanner statement in the mid-1960s to J. Kenneth Davies as reported in Davies interview by Gary James Bergera, 24 Dec. 1984, photocopy in my possession;
Davies telephone conversation with me, 6 Jan. 1993.
Benson’s conference talks on Communism (Stapley to Mrs. W. E. Daddow, 19 Feb. 1965, LDS archives, photocopy in my possession).
163 "LDS Apostle Backs Up Birch Group," Salt Lake Tribune, 16 Jan. 1966, B-14;
"Speak Up! Says Ezra to Save Your Soul and Maybe Your Country," Fact Finder 24 (28 Feb. 1966); Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 6.
164 Wallace F. Bennett to David Lawrence McKay, 21 Jan. 1966, folder 3, box 24, Bennett Papers, Western Americana, Marriott Library;
Wallace F. Bennett, Why I Am A Mormon, 3d ed. (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1964).
165 The John Birch Society Bulletin (Feb. 1966): 30.
166 Ezra Taft Benson, "Stand Up For Freedom," address to the Utah Forum for the American Idea, Assembly Hall, Temple Square, Salt Lake City, 11 Feb. 1966, typescript, 9, 11, Vertical File, Special Collections, Marriott Library;
"Benson Hits Liberals’ ’Conspiracy’: Assails Plots, Propaganda," Salt Lake Tribune, 12 Feb. 1966, 17.
167 Compare with the Birch Society’s publication of Ezra Taft Benson, An Internal Threat Today (Belmont, MA: American Opinion, [1964]);
Benson, "An Internal Threat Today" (paid advertisement by Concerned Citizens and Treasure Valley Freedom Forum), Idaho Statesman, 19 Jan. 1964, B-7,
Treasure Valley Freedom Forum, Boise, Idaho, 19 Dec. 1963, transcript, 6-7, 10, folder 1, box 122, Moss Papers.
168 Joseph Fielding Smith to Ralph Harding, 30 Oct. 1963.
169 Benson, "Stand Up For Freedom," 13-14;
"Benson Hits Liberals’ ’Conspiracy’: Assails Plots, Propaganda";
"Socialism Warning Sounded: Elder Benson Hits Liberals," Deseret News, 12 Feb. 1966, B-1;
Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 385.
170 "Copy of First Presidency minutes digest 2-18-66," in "Hugh B. Brown’s File on the John Birch Society."
171 Reported by U.S. senator Frank E. Moss to U.S. representative Ken W. Dyal, 2 Mar. 1966, folder 5, box 184,
Hugh B. Brown on 22 February (box 713, Moss Papers).
172 "Stand Up For Freedom: Partial Text Of Talk Given to S.L. Group By Elder Benson," Deseret News " Church News," 26 Feb. 1966, 10-12;
Duane Price to D. Michael Quinn, 9 Aug. 1992,
Birch Society. Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 35n29,
173 Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Luke, "Motives Unquestioned," Salt Lake Tribune, 10 Apr. 1966, A-16.
174 Wilkinson diary, 19-22 Aug. 1965;
W. Cleon Skousen, The Communist Attack on the John Birch Society (Salt Lake City: Ensign Publishing Co., 1963),
"American Opinion Speakers Bureau" in the Birch Society’s American Opinion 9 (May 1966): 109.
Skousen stated: "I am not a member of the John Birch Society and never have been," in Behind the Scenes: A Personal Report to Pledged Freemen from W. Cleon Skousen (Salt Lake City: The Freemen Institute, 1980), 1, photocopy in folder 25, box 17, Buerger Papers.
Richard D. Poll, This Trumpet Gives An Uncertain Sound, and Skousen’s My Reply to Dr. Richard D. Poll and His Critique of The Naked Communist (Salt Lake City: Ensign Publishing Co. [1962]
175 Wilkinson diary, 13 Apr. 1966.
176 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 374.
177 The John Birch Society Bulletin (Mar. 1966): 22-24;
"CROSS REFERENCE SHEET," 2 Mar. 1966, in "Hugh B. Brown’s File on the John Birch Society."
178 Ezra Taft Benson to Joseph Fielding Smith, 3 Mar. 1966, MS 4940, LDS archives.
179 "Copy of First Presidency minutes digest 3-3-66," in "Hugh B. Brown’s File on the John Birch Society."
180 J. Reese Hunter to "Dear Brethren," 8 Mar. 1966, LDS archives, photocopy in Williams Papers;
Utah Forum For the American Idea, "Program," 11 Feb. 1966, Williams Papers.
181 Philip K. Langan to "All Friends of American Opinion in Utah," Mar. 1966, quoted in Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 27-28.
182 "OPERATION CHECKMATE," original typed document, Williams Papers, also photocopy inscribed, "J D Williams, March 14, 1966," folder 2, box 124, Robert H. Hinckley Papers,
Western Americana, Marriott Library. Although undated, this document was drafted after the J. Reese Hunter letter of 8 Mar. 1966 (which "OPERATION CHECKMATE" referred to) and before the First Presidency statement of 17 March, which was the kind of official statement recommended by "OPERATION CHECKMATE," 4.
183 Campbell and Poll, Hugh B. Brown, 259;
184 "Church Tells Position On Dinner for Bircher," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 17 Mar. 1966, A-10;
"Notice To Church Members," Deserei News " Church News, "19 Mar. 1966, 2;
"So Much For Mr. Welch," Rocky Mountain Review, 17 Mar. 1966, 4.
185 Wilkinson diary, 22 Mar. 1966;
"Birch Dinner in Salt Lake City Vexes Mormons," New York Times, 8 Apr. 1966, 28;
"Mormons and Politics: Benson’s Influence Helps Keep Growing Church on Conservative Track," Walt Street Journal, 8 Aug. 1966,
V, J. D. Williams, "Separation of Church and State in Mormon Theory and Practice," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 1 (Summer 1966): 50;
J. D. Williams, "Reply to Letter of Garn E. Lewis," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 1 (Winter 1966): 8;
Epstein and Forster, The Radical Right, 200-201;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 15-16, 22-25, 27-29;
Bethke, "BF [Before Falwell], EB [Ezra Benson]," 15-16;
Gibbons, David O. McKay, 381-82, 383.
186 John Birch Society’s American Opinion 9 (Apr. 1966): cover page, and 112.
187 Wilkinson diary, 22 Mar. 1966;
"Welch Raps ’Senseless’ U.S. Policy," Salt Lake Tribune, 8 Apr. 1966, B-l, with photo on B-2;
"Birch Dinner in Salt Lake City Vexes Mormons," New York Times, 8 Apr. 1966, 28;
Hugh W. Gillilan, "500 Misled Americans," and Mrs. Calvin L. Rampton, "JBS’ Tasteless Violation," Salt Lake Tribune, 10 Apr. 1966, A-16, with reply by J. Reese Hunter, "Answers Mrs. Rampton," Salt Lake Tribune, 13 Apr. 1966, 18;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 1, 16.
188 Robert Welch, "Dinner Meeting at Hotel Utah Introductory Remarks—April 7th, 1966 by Robert Welch," mimeograph, 1, Special Collections, Lee Library;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 25-26, 35n32, cites this as a publication of the American Opinion Bookstore in Salt Lake City.
189 "Birch Dinner in Salt Lake City Vexes Mormons," New York Times, 8 Apr. 1966, 28, published as "Welch Says Mormons Make Good Birchers," Minneapolis Tribune, 9 Apr. 1966.
190 Meeting minutes of 15 Mar. 1966.
191 "Let Us Not Be Carried Away," Deseret News " Church News," 29 July 1961, 16;
"What Americanism Must Mean," Deseret News, 28 Oct. 1961, A-10;
"A Question For Americans," Deseret News, 30 Nov. 1961, A-18.
Deseret News "Church News," 15 Jan. 1984, 3,
Mark E. Petersen "had written the editorials since the beginning of the weekly publication in 1931."
Peggy Petersen Barton’s Mark E. Petersen: A Biography (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1985), 114,
192 Richard D. Poll to Hugh B. Brown, 23 Dec. 1961,
193 "Politics and Religion," Deseret News " Church News," 26 Mar. 1966, 16.
"New Evidence For the Book of Mormon," Improvement Era 65 (June 1962): 457.
194 Mark E. Anderson to David O. McKay, 5 Apr. 1966, MS 3744, LDS archives, photocopy in my possession;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 17.
Mark Anderson did not mention the Church News editorial in his letter to the editor, Deseret News, 14 Apr. 1966, A-18,
"Welch Raps ’Senseless’ U.S. Policy," Salt Lake Tribune, 8 Apr. 1966, B-1;
Mark E. Anderson to Robert Welch, 5 June 1966, with copies to Ezra Taft Benson, Reed Benson, John Rousselot, and Frank Marisch, photocopy in Williams Papers;
"Birch Society ’Signs Up’ LDS Leader," Salt Lake Tribune, 7 Aug. 1966, B-3;
"Who Is Mark E. Anderson?" Utah Independent, 2 June 1972, 8. For description of the Birch Society’s organizational structure, see Welch, The Blue Book of the John Birch Society, 151-52;
"The John Birch Society: A Report," Advertising Supplement to Los Angeles Times, 217 Sept. 1964, 7-8;
Gerald Schomp, a former state coordinator, Birchism Was My Business (New York: Macmillan Co., 1970), 158.
195 Joe H. Ferguson to "All General Authorities," 16 Apr. 1966, 4, with postscript to "Mark" (Mark E. Anderson), photocopy in my possession;
Blaine Elswood to the editor of the Deseret News, 29 Mar. 1966, files of the Deseret News offices, cited in Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 4-6,
Frank H. Jonas typed document, page 81, in the John Birch Society section of a longer manuscript for which the first portion is missing and its title presently unknown, Jonas Papers.
"Letters to the Editor," Deseret News, 28 Mar. 1966, A-18, 13 Apr. 1966, A-8.
196 Lee, introduction to Benson, So Shall Ye Reap, vii.
197 Wilkinson diary, 13 May 1963.
198 April 1966 Conference Report, 64-65, 66, 67, 68.
Byron Cannon Anderson’s pro-Birch, 1966
In Cross Fire, 586-87,
200 H. Grant Ivins, "Most Divisive Influence," Salt Lake Tribune, 11 Apr. 1966, 18.
His father was Anthony W. Ivins, First Presidency counselor from 1921 to 1934.
201 Walter Scott, "Personality Parade," Parade, 15 May 1966, 2,
202 Quinn G. McKay, statements in Davies, Political Extremism Under the Spotlight, 12, 19, 20-21.
203 Robert H. Hinckley, "The Politics of Extremism," in Congressional Record—Senate 112 (13 July 1966): 15584, 15583;
Hinckley, The Politics of Extremism (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1966);
"Hinckley Blasts Extremists," Provo Daily Herald, 25 May 1966, 14;
"Says Birchers Copy Reds," Deseret News, 25 May 1966, A-12.
Robert H. Hinckley and JoAnn Jacobsen Wells, "I’d Rather Be Born Lucky Than Rich": The Autobiography of Robert H. Hinckley (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1977), 1, 15-22, 75, 78, 125, 139;
Billy Wayne Winstead, "Robert Henry Hinckley: His Public Service Career," Ph.D. diss., University of Utah, 1980.
204 Benson to Robert H. Hinckley, 27 May 1966:
205 Deseret News "Church News," 16 Apr. 1966, 7;
Improvement Era 69 (June 1966): 477 as "nonchurch."
206 Bulletin of The John Birch Society (Jan. 1967): 24-25.
207 Newquist to Richard D. Poll, 7 Mar. 1967, photocopy in my possession.
208 Quoted in Buchanan diary, 7 Oct. 1966.
209 Whittaker and McClellan, "The Collection: Description," 1-2, register of the Hillam Papers;
Stephen Hays Russell to Ernest L. Wilkinson, 26 Apr. 1965;
Richard D. Poll to Wilkinson, 24 June 1965, defending himself against the complaints by Russell and E. Eugene Bryce, Wilkinson Papers, photocopy in my possession;
Morrell, Bernhard, Hillam, Wimmer, Midgley, and Wirthlin, "Events Related To the Covert Surveillance of Faculty Members," 1-2;
"Birch Society Reviewed By Prof. Louis Midgley," Brighatn Young University Daily Universe, 22 May 1964, 2;
"Faculty Members Deplore ’Fanaticism’ of Booklet," Provo Daily Herald, 23 July 1964, 14;
"None Dare Call It Treason Causes Sincere Concern," Brigham Young University Daily Universe, 23 July 1964, 2;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 207-208.
210 Interview of Ronald Ira Hankin by Ray C. Hillam and Louis C. Midgley, 17 Sept. 1966, Provo, Utah, transcript, 4-5, signed at the bottom of each page by Ronald I. Hankin, folder 5, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers;
"Birchers Spied On Professors, Hialeah Student Said," Miami Herald, 3 Mar. 1967, A-32;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 208.
211 Byron Cannon Anderson, Ted Jacobs, and James C. Vandygriff. Anderson was a student at BYU in 1964-65 and summer of 1965.
Russell, "Y Center Activity Schedule," 20 Apr. 1966;
Russell statement, 13 Mar. 1967, p. 4;
Hankin interview, 4, 14;
Ray C. Hillam to Clyde D. Sandgren, 22 July 1966, "Re: Reports by Vandy griff and Russell";
Russell N. Horiuchi "To Whom it may concern," 11 Aug. 1966;
Ray C. Hillam "To Whom It May Concern," 15 Aug. 1966;
Hillam, "Complaints Against Jim C. Vandygriff," 16 Sept. 1966;
Larry T. Wimmer statement, 30 Jan. 1968;
Morrell, Bernhard, Hillam, Wimmer, Midgley, and Wirthlin, "Events Related To the Covert Surveillance of Faculty Members," 2;
Ben E. Lewis, Earl C. Crockett, and Clyde D. Sandgren to Ray C. Hillam, 15 May 1969, 3, in folders 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers;
1966 Banyan: The Yearbook of the Associated Students ofBrigham Young University, 293, and "Student Index," 500-29;
B.Y.U. Directory, 64-65;
B.Y.U. Summer School Directory, 1965;
B.Y.U. Directory, 1965-66;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 208. Mark Skousen was a son of Cleon Skousen’s brother Leroy B. See 1966 Banyan, 523;
Skousens In America: James Niels Skousen and His Two Wives... (Mesa, Arizona: Lofgreen Printing Co., 1971), 85, 87.
Later he became the author of such publications as Tax Free: All the Legal Ways to Be Exempt From Federal, State, and Social Security Taxes (1982),
Dissent on Keynes: A Critical Appraisal ofKeynesian Economics (New York: Praeger, 1992).
Michel L. Call’s 1973
212 E. Eugene Bryce, "Campus Speaker Affiliated With Subversive Groupings," Provo Daily Herald, 20 Apr. 1965, 10;
Poll to Wilkinson, 24 June 1965, defending himself against the complaints by Bryce;
Lisle Updike to Ernest L. Wilkinson, 5 May 1965, Curt Conklin to David O. McKay, 29 Jan. 1965 [1966],
Clare Middlemiss to Ernest L. Wilkinson, 3 Feb. 1966, Conklin to Wilkinson, 16 Feb. 1966, all in Wilkinson Papers, photocopies in my possession.
213 Whittaker and McClellan, "The Collection: Description," 2, register of Hillam Papers;
Stephen Hays Russell to Ernest L. Wilkinson, 26 Apr. 1965;
Morrell, Bernhard, Hillam, Wimmer, Midgley, and Wirthlin, "Events Related To the Covert Surveillance of Faculty Members," 5;
Richard D. Poll to Ray C. Hillam, 12 Sept. 1966, folder 10, Hillam Papers, also box 34, Buerger Papers;
BYU administrative officers with Ray C. Hillam and Stephen Hays Russell, 16 Sept. 1966, 5, folder 4, Hillam Papers, also box 34, Buerger Papers;
Hankin interview, 17 Sept. 1966, 30;
"Birchers Spied On Professors, Hialeah Student Said," Miami Herald, 3 Mar. 1967, A-32;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 209.
"Hell Breaks Loose In Paradise: This ’Textbook’ Hides A Tape Recorder To Trap a Teacher," Life 54 (26 Apr. 1963): 73-84.
214 Stephen Hays Russell, Personal History of Stephen Hays Russell (N.P., 1983), 99, photocopy in my possession.
215 Hankin interview, 17 Sept. 1966, 6-7;
David M. Sisson statement, 17 Sept. 1966, folder 10, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers.
Stephen Hays Russell statement, 13 Mar. 1967, typescript, signed at the bottom of each page by Stephen Hays Russell, folder 9, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers.
Russell’s "Statements By Stephen Hays Russell on ’The 1966-67 Student "Spy Ring’" Section of the Book Brigham Young University: A House of Faith by Bergera," 23 Dec. 1986 (photocopy in my possession),
During the official university inquiry on 16 Sept. 1966, p. 7 (folder 4, Hillam Papers, also box 34, Buerger Papers),
Ernest L. Wilkinson memorandum, 20 Sept. 1966, 3, photocopy in my possession,
Russell’s 1983 Personal History, 99-110,
1983 Personal History, and 1986
Russell’s 1986
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 211
216 My interview on 16 December 1992 with a person (name withheld by request) who was a highly placed official at LDS church headquarters in 1966.
Hankin interview, 17 Sept. 1966, pp. 6-7,
Sisson statement, 17 Sept. 1966, folder 10, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers.
217 Wilkinson diary, 29 Apr. 1966.
David M. Sisson on 17 Sept. 1966, folder 10, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers:
218 Louis C. Midgley to Ray C. Hillam, 11 Nov. 1966, regarding a conversation of Edwin B. Morrell, Richard B. Wirthlin, and Louis C. Midgley with Earl C. Crockett on 9 November.
220 Midgley to Ray C. Hillam, 11 Nov. 1966,
Whittaker and McClellan, "The Collection: Description," register of Hillam Papers.
221 Whittaker and McClellan, "The Collection: Description," 5, register of Hillam Papers.
222 "Free Forum Filled With ’Charges,’" Brigham Young University Daily Universe, 1 Mar. 1967, 1;
"BYU Denies Campus ’Spy’ Story," Salt Lake Tribune, 1 Mar. 1967, C-4;
"Birchers Spied on Professors, Hialeah Student Says," Miami Herald, 3 Mar. 1967, A-32;
"Wilkinson Admits ’Spy Ring’ Existence at ’Y,’" Provo Daily Herald, 14 Mar. 1967, 1, 4;
"Patriots On the Campus," The New Republic 156 (25 Mar. 1967): 12;
"Spies, J[unior]. G[rade].," Newsweek 69 (27 Mar. 1967): 112;
"Y. Teachers Blast ’Spy Scandal Coverup,’" Salt Lake Tribune, 24 Dec. 1976, B-3;
Ron Priddis, "BYU Spy Case Unshelved," Seventh East Press, 14 Mar. 1982, 1, 11-12;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 207-17;
Robert Gottlieb and Peter Wiley, America’s Saints: The Rise of Mormon Power (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1984), 232-33.
223 Ezra Taft Benson reading copy of his general conference talk, 2 Oct. 1966, photocopy in "Hugh B. Brown’s File on the John Birch Society."
224 Buchanan diary, 3 Oct. 1966.
225 N. Eldon Tanner to Joseph Fielding Smith, 31 Oct. 1966, Hugh B. Brown to David O. McKay, 9 Nov. 1966
226 Ezra Taft Benson, "Protecting Freedom—An Immediate Responsibility," Improvement Era 69 (Dec. 1966): 1144-46,
227 Audio tape of Ezra Taft Benson, "Our Immediate Responsibility," devotional address to students of Brigham Young University, 25 Oct. 1966, available from BYU Media Services in 1992.
228 Ezra Taft Benson, "Our Immediate Responsibility," Speeches of the Year (Provo, UT: Extension Publications, Division of Continuing Education, Brigham Young University, 1966), esp. 8, 13-14.
229 Louis C. Midgley to Ray C. Hillam, 11 Nov. 1966, folder 12, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers;
Wilkinson diary, 25 Oct. 1966.
230 "Presidential Draft for Elder Benson?" in Deserei News, 3 May 1966, A-1;
"Group Seeks Benson for Race in ’68," Salt Lake Tribune, 3 May 1966, 6;
"Benson Hints Door Open In ’68 Race," Salt Lake Tribune, 4 May 1966, A-14;
Dew, Ezra Toft Benson, 383. Also Epstein and Forster, The Radical Right, 53-55, 142;
Bethke, "BF [Before Falwell], EB [Ezra Benson]," 16-17;
"Mormons and Politics: Benson’s Influence Helps Keep Growing Church on Conservative Track," Wall Street Journal, 8 Aug. 1966, 1.
231 Schomp, Birchism Was My Business, 159-60.
232 Birch Society’s American Opinion. John W. Scott was a Birch Society member in 1966 and joined the editorial advisory committee in 1978.
Bonner Fellers and Edgar W. Hiestand had been on the Committee of Endorsers in 1962,
The 1976 Committee, The Team You Can Trust To Guide America, the Best Team for ’68: Ezra Taft Benson for President, Strom Thurmond for Vice-President (Holland, Michigan, [1966]), 12,
Robert W. Lee to J. Bracken Lee, 17 Jan. 1966, on letterhead of The John Birch Society, folder 18, box 70, Lee Papers,
American Opinion 9 (Jan. 1966):
John H. Rousselot, "Honorable Edgar W. Hiestand," American Opinion 8 (Nov. 1965): 113.
The Team You Can Trust To Guide America, 15,
Birch office, William L. McGrath was identified as a member of the John Birch Society in Group Research Reports, "Individual Index—Cumulative (7/1/63)," copy in folder 4, box 9, King Papers.
233 Welch, Blue Book of The John Birch Society, 73:
234 Brown interview by Richard Wirthlin and Ray Hillam, 9 Aug. 1966, 3, transcribed 11 Oct. 1966 "from Rough Draft Notes," folder 6, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers.
235 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 383-84, 386, 392-93.
236 ’"Strictly a draft’—Elder Benson," [subheading] Deseret News " Church News," 28 Jan. 1967, 6.
237 "Benson Finds Draft Crusade ’Humbling,’" Ogden Standard-Examiner, 11 Mar. 1967, 9;
"Benson Says No Interest in ’68 Draft," Salt Lake Tribune, 12 Mar. 1967, C-6.
238 "Tendency Toward Extremes," Deseret News "Church News," 15 Apr. 1967, 20.
239 "Group Acts to Draft Benson in ’68 Race," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 1 Nov. 1967, A-12.
240 "Ezra Taft Benson Addresses Rally," Deseret News, 7 Jan. 1963, A-3.
"This Week! 5 Great Nights of Christian Leadership Training: Christian Crusade Leadership School—Feb. 20-24," advertisement in Tulsa Daily World, 19 Feb. 1967, photocopy in Williams Papers.
John Harold Redekop, The American Far Right: A Case Study of Billy James Hargis and Christian Crusade (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1968).
241 Brown to Burns S. Hanson, 11 May 1967, carbon copy cross-referenced to "Hargis, Billy James," in "Hugh B. Brown File on the John Birch Society."
242 Benson address, 29 Sept. 1967, in his Civil Rights: Tool of Communist Deception, 3;
"Mormon Leaders Heard By 25,000," New York Times, 2 Oct. 1967, 52;
Improvement Era 70 (Dec. 1967): 35,
However that censored 1967 statement was almost identical to the Deseret News, 14 Dec. 1963, B-5, report of Benson’s assessment of civil rights.
243 Wes Andrews and Clyde Dalton, The Black Hammer: A Study of Black Power; Red Influence and White Alternatives (Oakland, CA: Desco Press, 1967), 13,
244 Ezra Taft Benson, "Trade and Treason," Christian Crusade 19 (Apr. 1967): 22-24.
letter from Benson to Frank H. Jonas, 18 Aug. 1967, is in Jonas Papers;
Highland High School, Salt Lake City, 9 June 1967.
"Benson Talk To Close ’Idea’ Series," Salt Lake Tribune, 4 June 1967, B-13.
245 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 397-98;
The 1976 Committee, The Team You Can Trust To Guide America;
Epstein and Forster, The Radical Right, 53-55, 142;
Bethke, "BF [Before Falwell], EB [Ezra Benson]," 16-17.
246 J. Earl Coke, "Reminiscences on People and Change in California Agriculture, 1900-1975," 111, interviews by Ann Foley Scheuring, 1976, Oral History Center, Shields Library, University of California at Davis, with copy in Special Collections, Lee Library.
Wilkinson diary, 13 Sept. 1957
247 Willard S. Voit announcement, 17 Nov. 1967, in The John Birch Society Bulletin (Dec. 1967): 26-28;
"Wallace In Race; Will ’Run To Win,"’ New York Times, 9 Feb. 1968, 1;
"Benson Backs Wallace Stand," Christian Science Monitor, 13 Feb. 1968, 3,
248 George C. Wallace to David O. McKay, 12 Feb. 1968,
David O. McKay to George C. Wallace, 14 Feb. 1968, photocopies in Wilkinson Papers, photocopies in my possession;
Lewis Chester, Godfrey Hodgson, and Bruce Page, An American Melodrama: The Presidential Campaign of 1968 (New York: Viking Press, 1969), 694;
Dennis Wainstock, The Turning Point: The 1968 United States Presidential Campaign (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1988), 164;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 221.
249 Ezra Taft Benson, "Re: Martin Luther King," 6 Apr. 1968, photocopy in my possession;
Jim Lucier, "King of Slick," in the John Birch Society’s American Opinion 6 (Nov. 1963): 1-11;
Alan Stang, "The King And His Communists," American Opinion 8 (Oct. 1965): 1-14;
Gary Allen, "America: How Communist Are We?" American Opinion 10 (July-Aug. 1967): 9.
Lionel Lokos, House Divided: The Life and Legacy of Martin Luther King (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1969);
William R. Miller, Martin Luther King, Jr.: His Life, Martyrdom and Meaning for the World (New York: Wybright and Talley, 1968);
David L. Lewis, King: A Biography (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1978);
Stephen B. Oates, Let the Trumpet Sound: The Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. (New York: Harper and Row, 1982);
James P. Hanigan, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Foundations of Nonviolence (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984);
David J. Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (New York: W. Morrow, 1986);
James A. Colaiaco, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Apostle of Militant Nonviolence (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988);
Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988);
Richard Donald Ouellette, "The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr., 1965-1968," senior honors thesis, University of Utah, 1992.
of Martin Luther King national holiday, below.
250 Hugh B. Brown to John W. Bennion, LDS bishop of the Elgin Ward, Chicago Stake, 29 May 1968, photocopy in my possession.
251 R. Tom Tucker, "Remembering Hugh Brown," Sunstone 12 (May 1988): 4;
Gottlieb and Wiley, America’s Saints, 108.
252 Benson, "The Book of Mormon Warns America," address at Brigham Young University devotional, 21 May 1968, transcript, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10,
also "Road to Anarchy: Benson Blisters Supreme Court," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 22 May 1968, A-11;
"Benson Warns on Commies in Talk at BYU Assembly," Provo Daily Herald, 22 May 1968, 24. I could find no reference to Benson’s talk in the 21-22 May editions of Deserei News and Salt Lake Tribune.
253 Robert O. Trottier to David O. McKay, 22 May 1968, with copies to Hugh B. Brown, N. Eldon Tanner, and Ezra Taft Benson, photocopy in Vertical File for Ezra Taft Benson, Special Collections, Marriott Library.
254 Afton Olson Miles, "Mormon Voting Behavior and Political Attitudes," Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1978, 164-65.
255 Brown to Trottier, 24 May 1968, photocopy in Vertical File for Ezra Taft Benson, Special Collections, Marriott Library.
256 Campbell and Poll, Hugh B. Brown, 259-60.
257 Hoover statement to the U.S. House appropriations subcommittee, 10 Feb. 1966, in Congressional Record—House 112 (27 Sept. 1966): 24028.
The Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith analyzed Birch anti-Semitism in "The John Birch Society," Facts: Domestic Report 14 (Nov.-Dec. 1961).
J. Reuben Clark, Ezra Taft Benson, and Ernest L. Wilkinson were exchanging anti-Semitic publications and views (D. Michael Quinn, J. Reuben Clark: The Church Years [Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1983], 226, 321n24;
Clark to Wilkinson, 5 Feb. 1949;
Clark to Wilkinson, 9 Nov. 1955;
Benson to Clark, 9 Dec. 1957;
Clark to Benson, ca. 9 Dec. 1957).
258 Benson, "The Proper Role of Government," Vital Speeches 24 (15 June 1968): 514-20, also reprinted in Agricultural Engineering 49 (Aug. 1968): 469-71.
259 Wilkinson diary, 13 May 1969.
260 Campbell and Poll, Hugh B. Brown, 259
261 Benson, Cross Fire, 13-14, 23, 25, 38, 69.
262 Brown to Philip D. Thorpe, director of the Community Action Program in Provo, Utah, 18 Oct. 1968, carbon copy in Campbell papers, with attached copy of Benson’s October 1968 conference address, "The Proper Role of Government," Improvement Era 71 (Dec. 1968): 51-53, with underlined passage on page 53.
263 Improvement Era 72 (Dec. 1969): 69.
264 Phares Woods statement, 27 May 1969, 1-2, folder 16, Hillam Papers, and box 34, Buerger Papers. Daughter of Cleon Skousen’s brother Ervin M., Cynthia Skousen was a first cousin of the 1966 student-spy, Mark A. Skousen. See Skousens In America, 86.
265 Ernest L. Wilkinson diary, 12 Apr. 1968;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 215.
266 Undated, handwritten memo from "M. G. F." [poss. Merwin G. Fairbanks, director of student publications] to "Cleon Skousen," with copies to ELW [Ernest L. Wilkinson], RKT [Robert K. Thomas], BEL [Ben E. Lewis], RJS [Robert J. Smith], and "Dan Ludlow," folder 16, Hillam Papers;
267 Woods statement, 27 May 1969, 4;
BYU Directory, 1968-69, s.v. "Phares Quincy Woods."
268 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 372, 385;
Dew, "Ezra Taft Benson," in Daniel H. Ludlow, ed., Encyclopedia of Mormonismi The History Scripture, Doctrine, and Procedure of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 5 vols. (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1992), 1:102-103.
269 Firmage, An Abundant Life: The Memoirs of Hugh B. Brown, 142.
270 Specific use of "end run" terminology for this feature of McKay’s presidency appears in J. Reuben Clark office diary, 22 May 1961;
Wilkinson diary, 25 May 1967;
Neal A. Maxwell oral history, 1976-77, 24-25, LDS archives;
Quinn, J. Reuben Clark, 128, 141-42.
271 "Responsibility Without Authority—The 1st Counselor Years," 13, Campbell Papers
272 October 1959 Conference Report, 5;
David O. McKay, Statements on Communism and the Constitution of the United States (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1964).
273 McKay diary, 17 Aug., 24 Aug., 19 Sept. 1961, LDS archives;
Quinn, J. Reuben Clark, 190, 216;
Deseret News "Church News," 16 Apr. 1966, 7;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 18-19;
James B. Allen, "David O. McKay," in Ludlow, Encyclopedia of Mormonism 2:874.
"How to Become a Millionaire: Start An ’Anti-Commie’ Society," Deseret News, 2 May 1961, A-12, which Mark E. Petersen re-emphasized in "Let Us Not Be Carried Away," Deseret News "Church News," 29 July 1961, 16;
Jerrald [sic] L. Newquist, "Liberty Vs. Creeping Socialism: Warns Of Internal Threats," Deseret News, 21 Dec. 1961, A-12.
George T. Boyd to Hugh B. Brown, 22 Sept. 1961,
Brown’s answer of 6 October, copies in Mormon Americana, Special Collections, Lee Library, Brigham Young University. Contrast the 1961
LDS church’s official MIA Stake Leader 13 (Dec. 1961): 3
Stewart, "Analysis of the Celebrity Structure of the American Right," 29;
All American Society of Utah, "What You Should Know About the All-American Society of Utah," 3, in Williams Papers.
274 "Benson, Skousen Speak at New England Rally," Utah Independent, 9 July 1970, 1,
"Benson Is Guest of Honor," Utah Independent, 30 June 1972, 8,
"The John Birch Society: A Report," Advertising Supplement to Los Angeles Times, 27 Sept. 1964, 7.
275 Brown to Bennion, 29 May 1968.
276 "Shun Vigilante Groups, LDS Urges Members," Sait Lake Tribune, 4 Mar. 1970, B-1.
277 "TO ALL STAKE PRESIDENTS INTERESTED IN TRUTH AND LIBERTY THIS CALL IS MADE," photocopy of typed document, undated, in folder 22, box 5, Buerger Papers, with signed copies by J. Wilson Bartlett in MS 2461, LDS archives, and in folder 3, box 124, Hinckley Papers
278 Lee, "To the Defenders of the Faith," 4 Apr. 1970, Improvement Era 73 (June 1970):
278 Lee, "To the Defenders of the Faith," 4 Apr. 1970, Improvement Era 73 (June 1970): 64.
279 Goates, Harold B. Lee, 414;
Lee, "The Day in Which We Live," and photograph of "Council of the Twelve" vote in "The Solemn Assembly," Improvement Era 73 (June 1970): 28, 20.
280 Buchanan diary, 21 July 1970;
Ezra Taft Benson, "A World Message," Improvement Era 73 (June 1970): 95-97,
281 Byron Cannon Anderson, "LDS General Conference Sustains Pres. Smith," Utah Independent, 9 Apr. 1970, 1, 4.
Belmont, Massachusetts, was formally named ’The Birch Log" as of Utah Independent, 5 Aug. 1976, 3.
282 Byron Cannon Anderson interview, 18 Jan. 1993.
283 Statement of Henry D. Taylor to his friend Mark K. Allen as reported in Allen interview, 3 May 1984,
284 Wilkinson to Benson, 13 Apr. 1971, also follow-up letter of 4 May 1971, Wilkinson Papers, photocopies in my possession;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 190.
285 Gary Allen, None Dare Cail It Conspiracy (Rossmoor, CA: Concord Press, 1971).
"The Life and Character of Robert Welch," American Opinion 28 (Mar. 1985): 127,
Allen’s permanent position as a "Contributing Editor" of American Opinion since September 1967
286 Benson, "Civic Standards for the Faithful Saints," Utah Independent, 14 Apr. 1972, 4;
Deseret News "Church News," 8 Apr. 1972, 12,
Ensign 2 (July 1972): 59-61.
12 December 1972, BYU professor J. Kenneth Davies reported Duane E. Jeffery memorandum, 12 Dec. 1972, photocopy provided in Jeffery to D. Michael Quinn, 9 Dec. 1992
287 "Support for Candidate Possible Some Day, LDS Apostle Says," Salt Lake Tribune, 22 Feb. 1974, B-1;
"Benson Tells Party Support," Salt Lake Tribune, 4 Nov. 1974, 29;
Says Elder’s Speech on Third Party ’Unauthorized,’" Ogden Standard-Examiner, 4 Nov. 1974, A-10;
"American Party told, ’Stand Firm,"’ Deserei News, 4 Nov. 1974, B-14.
288 David O. McKay to Earl C. Crockett, 4 June 1964, and Crockett memorandum, 11 Dec. 1965, Wilkinson Papers, photocopies in my possession;
LaVarr G. Webb, "In John Birch Society[,] Fanatics Are Hard to Find," Brigham Young University Daily Universe "Monday Magazine," 25 Nov. 1974, 4-6, 10;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 196, 262-63.
289 President’s meeting, 22 Jan. 1975, archives, Brigham Young University, photocopy in my possession.
290 Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 221-22.
291 Benson, "Problems Affecting the Domestic Tranquility of Citizens of the United States of America: Sovereign Remedies For Our Diseases," Vital Speeches 42 (1 Feb. 1976): 236-43;
"Elder Benson Warns of Communism’s Threat," Brigham Young University Daily Universe, 25 Feb. 1976, 2;
"Inflation, Reds Pose Peril, Benson Warns," Salt Lake Tribune, 5 Mar. 1976, B-5;
"Ezra Benson: Will Mormons Go Political?" Los Angeles Times, 1 Apr. 1976, Pt. 1, 5;
"LDS Apostle Warns of Communism," Salt Lake Tribune, 20 Apr. 1976, A-8;
Attacks Welfare as ’Legal Plunder,"’ Salt Lake Tribune, 27 June 1976, B-1;
"Benson Deplores ’U.S. Support’ of Communism," Salt Lake Tribune, 28 June 1976, 18;
"Pres. Benson Hits Detente: Policy Called Aid to Communism," Deseret News, 23 Aug. 1976, B-11;
"Benson Lambastes Detente, Support of Communism," Salt Lake Tribune, 28 Aug. 1976, Pt. II, 17.
292 Wilkinson diary, 18 Sept. 1976;
"Pres. Ezra Taft Benson Speaks At Freeman Institute," Utah Independent, 23 Sept. 1976, 5.
293 "Freemen Institute a Burgeoning Political Force," Deseret News, 14 June 1980, A-7;
Behind the Scenes: A Personal Report to Pledged Freemen from W. Cleon Skousen (Salt Lake City: The Freemen Institute, 1980), 2, photocopy in folder 25, box 17, Buerger Papers.
John Harrington, "The Freemen Institute," Nation 231 (16 Aug. 1980): 152-53;
Linda Sillito and David Merrill, "Freemen America," Utah Holiday 10 (Feb. 1981): 34-43, 66-67, 70-75, (Mar. 1981): 33-40, 52-54;
"Cleon Skousen: Humble Teacher or Apostle of the Right?" Salt Lake Tribune, 2 Aug. 1981, B-6;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 220-21, 454n88;
"Cleon Skousen: Controversial Dean of Utah’s Conservatives," Deseret News Utah Magazine, 9 Mar. 1986, 4;
"Commission Stops Selling Skousen Text," Deserei News, 6 Feb. 1987, B-2;
"Skousen’s Flock Spreading the Word on Constitution," Salt Lake Tribune, 22 Apr. 1987, B-2;
"Skousen Isn’t About to Break His Ties to Rev. Moon," Salt Lake Tribune, 29 Apr. 1987, B-1;
"Skousen Stepping Down as President of Institute," Deseret News, 17 Sept. 1989, B-3;
"Skousen Retires From Constitutional Studies Center," Salt Lake Tribune, 20 Sept. 1989, B-8;
Encyclopedia of Associations, 27th ed. (Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1993), s.v. National Center for Constitutional Studies (#14805);
294 Wilkinson diary, 18 Sept. 1976;
"Pres. Ezra Taft Benson Speaks At Freeman Institute," Utah Independent, 23 Sept. 1976, 5.
Freeman Institute dedicatory service in the Deseret News (17-20 Sept. 1976), or in the Provo Daily Herald (17-19 Sept. 1976),
"Benson Chides Fiscal Policies," Salt Lake Tribune, 19 Sept. 1976, B-2,
"Benson Calls For Sounder Fiscal Policy," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 19 Sept. 1976, A-10,
295 Wilkinson diary, 18 Sept. 1976;
D. Arthur Haycock’s identical statement in his interview with me, 3 Aug. 1979;
Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 262;
Edward L. Kimball, ed., The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball... (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1982), xvii;
Jack Walsh, "D. Arthur Haycock: Aide to Four Prophets," Ensign 14 (Aug. 1984): 22-27;
Dell Van Orden and Gerry Avant, "Secretary to Five Prophets Called As Temple President," Deser et News " Church News," 19 Jan. 1986, 6, 11;
interview on 5 Sept. 1992 with Rodney P. Foster, assistant secretary in the First Presidency’s Office from 1974 to 1981.
296 "Party Qualifies For Utah Ballot," Salt Lake Tribune, 6 Mar. 1976, B-5;
"LDS Official Says ’No’ to Politics," Salt Lake Tribune, 25 Mar. 1976, B-4,
"Party Clarifies Stand on Benson Selection," Salt Lake Tribune, 29 Mar 1976, 38.
297 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 446.
298 Duane E. Jeffery memorandum, 26 Oct. 1977, folder 28, box 6, Buerger Papers.
299 "LDS Official Acknowledges Church Monitors Critics," Salt Lake Tribune, 8 Aug. 1992, D-1;
"LDS Leaders Say Scripture Supports Secret Files on Members," Salt Lake Tribune, 14 Aug. 1992, B-1.
300 Minutes of Combined Boards of Trustees, 7 Dec. 1977, archives, Lee Library, photocopy in my possession;
Bergera and Priddis, Brigham Young University, 223.
301 Spencer W. Kimball, N. Eldon Tanner, and Marion G. Romney to All Stake Presidents, Bishops, and Branch Presidents in the United States, 15 Feb. 1979, photocopy in folder 25, box 17, Buerger Papers.
302 "Free Enterprise Endangered, President Benson Warns," Deseret News, 17 May 1977, B-3;
"Benson Hails Free Enterprise in ’Hill Cumorah Address,’" Salt Lake Tribune, 13 July 1977, A-9;
"LDS Leader Offers Interpretation of Church and State Separation," Salt Lake Tribune, 25 July 1977, 19;
"Socialism Growth in US Rapped by LDS Leader," Salt Lake Tribune, 25 Sept. 1977, A-24;
"Pres. Benson Defends Free Market," Deseret News, 10 Dec. 1977, A-9;
"Nation ’Spending Into Oblivion,’ Pres. Benson Warns at LDS Meet," Salt Lake Tribune, 26 Mar. 1979, D-2;
"Benson Rakes U.S. ’Subversives,’" Ogden Standard-Examiner, 4 July 1979, A-14;
Ezra Taft Benson, "A Warning to America," address to the California Constitutional Crusade, 9 Oct. 1979, transcript in folder 23, box 5, Buerger Papers;
"LDS Official Decries Spread of Marxism," Deseret News, 217 Oct. 1979, A -7;
"Apostle Calls For Return to Gold Standard," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 20 Jan. 1980, A-12;
Ezra Taft Benson, "A Moral Challenge," in John Birch Society’s American Opinion 23 (Feb. 1980): 41-54.
303 "Benson Urges Monetary Step: Re-Establish Metal Standard," Salt Lake Tribune, 25 Feb. 1980, B-2;
"Gathering of Freemen Institute Draws Crowd to Arizona Resort," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 25 Feb. 1980, A-12.
304 Benson, "Fourteen Fundamentals In Following the Prophets," transcript of his talk to BYU’s devotional, 26 Feb. 1980, folder 24, box 5, Buerger Papers;
Devotional Speeches of the Year (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, 1981);
"Prophet’s Word ’Law’ Benson Tells Group," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 26 Feb. 1980, A-2;
"Benson Backs Prophet on Politics," Salt Lake Tribune, 27 Feb. 1980, B-3;
"Mormon Leader’s Word Is Law—Benson," San Jose Mercury News, 27 Feb. 1980, A-2;
"Interpretation of Speech Not Correct, Church Says," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 27 Feb. 1980, C-1;
"Mormon Professor Says Benson Speech Was Plea Anticipating Rise to LDS Presidency," Idaho State Journal, 28 Feb. 1980, A-2;
"U. Teacher Replies To Benson" and "Savant Hits ’Theocracy’ He Says Benson Wants," Salt Lake Tribune, 28 Feb. 1980, B-1, B-3;
"Pres. Benson Outlines Way to Follow Prophet," Deseret News " Church News," 1 Mar. 1980, 14;
"No. 2 Mormon Says Leader’s Word is Law," Los Angeles Times, 1 Mar. 1980, Pt. I, 35;
"Benson Speech Stirs Speculation on LDS Changes," Ogden Standard-Examiner, 2 Mar. 1980, A-l, A-5;
Sterling M. McMurrin, "Case for Vigilance," Salt Lake Tribune, 18 Mar. 1980, A-9;
Dew, Ezra Toft Benson, 468-69.
305 First Presidency statement, 5 Mar. 1980, Deseret News,â Church News," 8 Mar. 1980, 3;
"Church Policies and Announcements," Ensign 10 (Aug. 1980): 79.
306 Salt Lake Tribune, 9 Mar. 1980, C-31.
307 Edward L. Kimball to D. Michael Quinn, 14 Aug., 20 Aug. 1992, concerning discussions with his father in 1980. In 1980 President Kimball’s wife Camilla also described "his displeasure with the speech" to her brother-in-law George T. Boyd. Boyd to D. Michael Quinn, 24 Sept. 1992.
308 George T. Boyd the apologies which Kimball required of Benson. Boyd’s letter to me, 24 Sept. 1992,
Boyd (an in-law of Spencer and Camilla Kimball) also reported this conversation to BYU professor Duane Jeffery early in 1980.
interview of Jeffery in David John Buerger diary, 14 Aug. 1980, folder 4, box 1, Buerger Papers. These reproofs were also reported in "What Mormons Believe," Newsweek 96 (1 Sept. 1980): 71, in "Thus Saith Ezra Benson," Newsweek 98 (19 Oct. 1981): 109;
Allen interview (with Henry D. Taylor as a general authority source different from the above), 3 May 1984, by Alison Bethke Gayek;
my interview on 5 Sept. 1992 with Rodney P. Foster, assistant secretary in the First Presidency’s Office from 1974 to 1981.
309 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 469. For Mark Benson’s position in 1980,
"Mark Benson Becomes Our New Vice President in Charge of Development," Behind the Scenes (Jan. 1980): [4].
310 Benson to "John Birch Society Staff," 30 May 1980, archives,
311 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 486-87.
312 "John Birch: Beware the One-Worlders," Newsweek 99 (15 Mar. 1982): 17;
"The Lonely McCarthyites," Newsweek 103 (28 May 1984): 11;
"The Birchers After Welch," Newsweek 105 (21 Jan. 1985): 38;
"Robert Welch, RIP," National Review 37 (8 Feb. 1985): 20;
"Once a Red, Always a Red: For Birchers, No Peace," Newsweek 116 (17 Sept. 1990): 36.
313 "John Birch Society Is Out of Spotlight, But It’s Still Alive and Well in Utah," Salt Lake Tribune, 16 July 1989, B-10.
314 Dew, Ezra Taft Benson, 469-70.
Robert Dallek, Ronald Reagan: The Politics of Symbolism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984);
David G. Green, The New Conservatism: The Counter-Revolution in Political, Economic, and Social Thought (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987);
Gary Wills, Reagan’s America: Innocents At Home (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1987);
Sidney Blumenthal, Our Long National Daydream: A Political Pageant of the Reagan Era (New York: Harper and Row, 1988);
Steve Bruce, The Rise and Fall of the New Christian Right: Conservative Protestant Politics in America, 1978-1988 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988);
Martin Anderson, Revolution: The Reagan Legacy (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institute Press, Stanford University, 1990);
Haynes Johnson, Sleepwalking Through History: America in the Reagan Years (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991).
315 John H. Rousselot in American Opinion 7 (July-Aug. 1964): inside front cover, 10 (July-Aug. 1967): inside front cover;
"Reagan’s New Lobbyists to Business," Fortune 107 (30 May 1983): 36;
Anderson, "Church and Birch In Utah," 21.
316 Bob Gottlieb and Peter Wiley, "Mormons to the Right," San Jose Mercury News, 1 Dec. 1985, 9;
also "Possibility of Benson Heading Mormons Worries Some With Different Views," Los Angeles Times, 1 Apr. 1976, Pt. 1, 32;
"Mormon Church Faces A Fresh Challenge ... But Now, A Change of Leaders May Bring A Split In Its Ranks," U.S. News & World Report 95 (21 Nov. 1983): 61;
"Conservative Seeking Leadership Worries Some Mormons," Baltimore Sun, 11 Dec. 1983, A-3;
Gottlieb and Wiley, America’s Saints, 247, 257;
"Mormon Church Council Meets To Pick New Leader," Dallas Morning News, 11 Nov. 1985, A-4.
317 "New Chief of Mormons: Ezra Taft Benson," New York Times, 19 Nov. 1985, A-16;
also Robert Lindsey, "The Mormons: Growth, Prosperity and Controversy," New York Times Magazine, 12 Jan. 1986, 46.
318 "President Benson’s Fiery Conservatism Remains Quiet," Salt Lake Tribune, 30 Mar. 1986, B-2;
"President Benson’s First Year: Leader Stresses God, Not Politics," Salt Lake Tribune, 6 Oct. 1986, A -7.
319 "New Head of Mormon Church," The New American 1 (25 Nov. 1985): 9;
Evans-Raymond Pierre, "The True Man of Principle: Ezra Taft Benson," The New American 1 (9 Dec. 1985): 56.
320 The Constitution: The Voice of the National Center for Constitutionai Studies, Nov. 1985, 4, Dec. 1986, 3.
321 Benson, "An Internal Threat Today" (paid advertisement by Concerned Citizens and Treasure Valley Freedom Forum), Idaho Statesman, 19 Jan. 1964, B-7, 11th para.;
Treasure Valley Freedom Forum, Boise, Idaho, 19 Dec. 1963, transcript, 2, Moss Papers.
322 Conversation in 1980 with Wayne Owens, recently returned LDS mission president, Democratic leader, and former U.S. congressman from Utah. Packer became an apostle in 1970, Faust in 1978.
323 Deseret News 1993-1994 Church Almanac, 15, 19;
"Benson Heads Mormons, Enlists 2 Key Moderates," Los Angeles Times, 12 Nov. 1985, Pt. I, 6;
Lowell M. Durham, Jr., who was vice-president (and then president) of Zion’s Co-operative Mercantile Institution (ZCMI) from 1982 to 1990.
324 "Benson Ties Rights Issue to Reds in Mormon Rift," Washington Post, 19 May 1963, E-1, E-7.
Benson, An Enemy Hath Done This, ed. Jerreld L. Newquist (Salt Lake City: Parliament Publishers, 1969), 310, 361.
325 Willard Woods, "Martin Luther King Day," Freemen Digest, Jan. 1984, 23;
Skousen and R. Stephen Pratt emphasized King’s association with Marxists and Communists in their two articles, "The Early Life of Martin Luther King, Jr.," and "Reverend King’s Ministry: Thirteen Years of Crisis," Freemen Digest, Jan. 1984, 11, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20.
326 Deseret News, 14 Oct. 1985, A-2, 13 Feb. 1986, A-1;
Salt Lake Tribune, 14 Feb. 1986, A-1, 28 Feb. 1986, A-5, 18 Mar. 1986, B-1.
"Martin Luther King Holiday or Not, Utah Lawmakers Convene Today," Salt Lake Tribune, 18 Jan. 1993, B-1;
"Utah’s Mix of Church and State: Theocratic or Just Homogenized?" Salt Lake Tribune, 18 Jan. 1993, B-2.
327 Bulletin of the University of Utah: General Catalog, 1987-88 (Salt Lake City, 1987), 4;
Brigham Young University Bulletin: General Catalog, 1987-1988 (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University, 1987), 18, listed it as "Human Rights Day";
1988-1989 General Catalogue: Brigham Young University Bulletin (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University, 1988), ix,
328 Thomas R. Eddlem, "Bolshevism With a New Name," The New American 6 (3 Dec. 1990): 22,
329 Benson, "I Testify," Ensign 18 (Nov. 1988): 87.
330 "LDS Official Acknowledges Church Monitors Critics," Salt Lake Tribune (8 Aug. 1992): D-1;
"LDS Leaders Say Scripture Supports Secret Files on Members," Salt Lake Tribune (14 Aug. 1992): B-1;
"Secret Files," New York Times (22 Aug. 1992): 9.
332 The John Birch Society Bulletin, May 1989, 30;
"Birch Dinner in S.L.," Salt Lake Tribune, 16 June 1989, E-5;
"Are We Hearing Death Rattle of Communism?" Salt Lake Tribune, 18 June 1989, A-3.
333 Deserei News 1991-1992 Church Almanac (Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1990), 315. This information was omitted from the 1993-1994 Church Almanac, 370.
335 John F. McManus, "’A New World Order’ Means World Government," The John Birch Society Bulletin (Nov. 1990): 3-14;
"Birch Society Lauds ’Fertile Soil’ In Utah," Deseret News, 13 May 1991, B-2;
"Utah’s Birchers Organizing To Fight Bush ’Conspiracy,’" Salt Lake Tribune, 27 May 1991, B-1;
"John Birch Society Skeptical of Communist Party Demise," Salt Lake Tribune, 8 Sept. 1991, B-1;
’"John Bircher’ Recruits Join Fight Against New World Order," Salt Lake Tribune, 21 June 1992, B-1.
336 "Longtime Doomsayer Seeks ’Safety’ Back in LDS Fold," Salt Lake Tribune, 24 Jan. 1993, B-6;
American Study Group in Malcolm S. Jeppsen, "We Shall Not Be Led Astray," 8, computer print-out, 25 Oct. 1992, photocopy in my possession.
337 Ensign 20 (May 1990): 1, 20 (Nov. 1990): 1, 21 (May 1991): 1, 21 (Nov. 1991): 1, 22 (May 1992): 1, 22 (Nov. 1992): V, photographs in "LDS Historian Says Benson’s Right-Wing Beliefs Caused Infighting, Church To Censure Speeches," Salt Lake Tribune, 8 Aug. 1992, A-7, and in "Age Taking Its Toll On President Benson," Salt Lake Tribune, 16 Jan. 1993, C-1.
338 "It’s Judgment Day for Far Right: LDS Church Purges Survivalists," Salt Lake Tribune, 29 Nov. 1992, A-1, A-2.
In "LDS Deny Mass Ouster of Radicals," Salt Lake Tribune, 4 Dec. 1992, 1,
"LDS Church Downplays Reports On Discipline," Deseret News, 4 Dec. 1992, B-1.
339 Malcolm S. Jeppsen in his "We Shall Not Be Led Astray," especially on page 8 of his computer print-out, 25 Oct. 1992.
340 Jack Lewis and D. Michael Quinn in KUER’s broadcast of "All Things Considered," by National Public Radio, 4 Dec. 1992.
341 Gordon B. Hinckley, "The Church Is On Course," Ensign 22 (Nov. 1992): 53.
342 Gottlieb and Wiley, America’s Saints, 59, 61.
343 Wilbur Zelinsky, "An Approach to the Religious Geography of the United States: Patterns of Church Membership in 1952," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 51 (June 1961): 163-64, 193;
D.W. Meinig, "The Mormon Cultural Region: Strategies and Patterns in the Geography of the American West, 1847-1964," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 55 (1965): 191-220;
Samuel S. Hill, "Religion and Region in America," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 480 (July 1985): 137;
D. Michael Quinn, "Religion in the American West," in William Cronon, George Miles, and Jay Gitlin, eds., Under An Open Sky: Rethinking America’s Western Past (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1992), 146, 160.
344 "Hero-Turned Heretic? Gritz May Be Leading LDS Flock Into Wilderness," Salt Lake Tribune, 29 Nov. 1992, A-2.
345 "Ultraconservative Gritz Remains as Bold as Ever," Salt Lake Tribune, 7 Dec. 1992, B-2;
"LDS Zealots Muzzling Outspoken to Protect Tax Status, Gritz Says," Salt Lake Tribune, 22 Jan. 1993, B-1.
346 In his letter to the editor, "Stand Fast For Freedom," Salt Lake Tribune, 22 Dec. 1992, A-13,
347 "Mormon Church Has Begun To Expel Many Extremists," New York Times, 21 Dec. 1992, 10.
Eric Hoffer, The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements (New York: Harper and Row, 1951).

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