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[Footnotes]

1 Jill C. Mulvay, "The Liberal Shall Be Blessed: Sarah M. Kimball," Utah Historical Quarterly 44 (1976): 210-11. History of Relief Society (Salt Lake City: The General Board of Relief Society, 1966), pp. 18-25.
2 Minutes of General [Women’s] Meeting, 17 July 1880, in "R. S. Reports," Woman’s Exponent 9 (1 September 1880): 53-54;
Valeen Tippetts Avery, "Emma, Joseph, and the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo: Unsuspected Arena for a Power Struggle," paper presented at Mormon History Association annual meeting, Rexburg, Idaho, 2 May 1981.
3 Susa Young Gates, "Relief Society Beginnings in Utah," Relief Society Magazine 9 (Spring 1922): 184-96
Emmeline B. Wells, "History of the Relief Society," Woman’s Exponent 32 (July 1903): 6-7
The abbreviated treatment in the official History of Relief Society (Salt Lake City: The General Board of the Relief Society, 1966), pp. 28-29
Kate B. Garter, ed., "The Relief Society," Our Pioneer Heritage 14 (1971): 71-73, 75-78, 103, 113
Eliza R. Snow, An Immortal: Selected Writings of Eliza R. Snow (Salt Lake City: Nicholas G. Morgan, Sr., Foundation, 1957), pp. 1-48.
Leonard J. Arrington, From Quaker to Latter-day Saint: Bishop Edwin D. Woolley (Salt Lake City: Deserei Book, 1976), pp. 337-55
Leonard J. Arrington and Davis Bitton, The Mormon Experience (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), pp. 149-50,
4 "Pioneer Diary of Eliza R. Snow," 26 April 1847, in Eliza R. Snow, An Immortal, p. 322.
ibid., pp. 320-64;
Patty Bartlett Sessions (Parry), Diary, 4 Feb. 1847-26 April 1848,
5 ibid., 27 Dec. 1847, p. 360.
Patty Sessions, Diary, particularly entry for 6 Feb. 1849.
6 Phinehas Richards, Journal, 6 May-20 Dec. 1851, microfilm copy of holograph, LDS Church Archives;
Patty Sessions, Diary, 22 March 1851-16 Jan. 1855;
Female Council of Health in the Tabernacle, Minutes, 14 Aug. 1852, Miscellaneous Minutes Collection, LDS Church Archives;
Christine Croft Waters, "Pioneering Physicians in Utah, 1847-1900" (M.A. thesis, University of Utah, 1976), pp. 14-17,
7 1 Ne. 15:13-18; 22:3-8;
2 Ne. 30:3-6;
3 Nephi 21;
Morm. 5:12-21;
D&G 3:16-30; 28:8; 32; 50:24.
8 Brigham Young Speech, Nephi, Utah, 10 May 1854, Thomas Bullock Minutes Collection, LDS Church Archives.
9 Minutes of Meeting in President’s Office, 4 Oct. 1853, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives.
10 Synopsis of Brigham Young’s address, 9 Oct. 1853, Salt Lake City Deser et News, 24 Nov. 1853.
11 Deseret News, 15 Oct. 1853.
12 Minutes of General Conference Address, 9 Oct. 1853, Deseret News, 15 Oct. 1853.
15 Sacred Hymns and Spiritual Songs for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 10th European ed. (Liverpool: Published for Orson Pratt by S. W. Richards, 1854), no. 283.
16 Brigham Young to Thomas L. Kane, 29 June 1854, Brigham Young Letterbook 1, pp. 570-72, LDS Church Archives.
Minutes of Meeting, 11 May 1854, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives.
17 Minutes of Meeting, Parowan, 21 May 1854, Thomas Bullock Minutes Collection, LDS Church Archives.
Brigham Young Sermon, Fillmore, 14 May 1854, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives.
18 J. H. M[artineau] to G. A. Smith, Parowan, 30 May 1855, Deserei News, 11 July 1855.
19 Report of Brigham Young Speech, 19 May 1854, Juanita Brooks, ed., Journal of the Southern Indian Mission: Diary of Thomas D. Brown (Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1972), pp. 29-31.
20 Letter of mission scribe, Thomas D. Brown, Deser et News, 22 June 1854.
21 Minutes of Parowan Meeting, 21 May 1854, Thomas Bullock Minutes Collection, LDS Church Archives.
22 Minutes of Meeting, Salt Lake City, 4 June 1854, Thomas Bullock Minutes Collection, LDS Church Archives.
23 Taylor Minutes, 7 June 1854;
Salt Lake Thirteenth Ward Indian Relief Society Minutes, 1854-57, LDS Church Archives.
24 Thirteenth Ward Indian Relief Society Minutes, [7 June 1854];
Brigham Young Financial Records: Ledgers, 1853-55, pp. 397-402, and 1854-59, pp. 289-96;
Journal, 1853-54, Brigham Young Papers;
Patty Sessions, Diary, 10 June 1854; LDS Church Archives.
25 Taylor Minutes, 13 June 1854;
Thirteenth Ward Indian Relief Society Minutes, [7 June 1854];
Smith Minutes, 10 June and [13 June] 1854.
26 Brigham Young Ledgers, 1853-55, pp. 397-402, and 1854-59, pp. 289-96.
Wilford Woodruff, Diary, 16 June 1854, LDS Church Archives.
27 Thirteenth Ward Indian Relief Society Minutes, 14 June 1854.
28 Ibid., [7] and 21 June 1854
29 Smith Minutes, summary following minutes for 16 Aug. 1854.
Brigham Young Financial Journal, 1853-54, pp. 264-65, 267-69, 275-76, 279-80, 285-86, 296-97, 309, 311, 313-15, 318, 332, 341-42, 344, 355-56, 358, 366, 373.
30 Ibid., p. 344.
31 Ibid., p. 265.
32 Brigham Young Ledgers, 1853-55, pp. 396-402, and 1854-59, pp. 289-96.
Brigham Young Financial Journal, 1853-54;
Isaac G. Haight and Rufus C. Allen accounts with Brigham Young, 17 Aug.-10 Oct. 1854, Brigham Young Miscellaneous Letterbook, LDS Church Archives.
33 Bishops’ Reports for April Conference and October Conference, 1854, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives.
34 Brigham Young to Isaac C. Haight and Brethren and the Southern Settlements in Iron County, 18 Aug. 1854, Brigham Young Letterbook 1, p. 631.
Young to Rufus C. Allen, 13 Sept. and [9 Oct. ?] 1854, Brigham Young Letterbook 1, pp. 674-75, 705.
Brigham Young Financial Journal, 1853-54, pp. 286, 344.
Brigham Young Ledger, 1854-55, pp. 396, 402;
Brigham Young Ledger, 1854-59, pp. 289-96.
35 I. G. Haight to Brigham Young, 8 Sept. 1854, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives. Young to Haight, 20 Sept. 1854, Brigham Young Letterbook 1, pp. 684-85.
Young to Allen, 13 Sept. and [9 Oct. ?] 1854, Brigham Young Letterbook 1, pp. 674-75, 705.
36 Haight to Young, 2 Oct. and 11 Oct. 1854, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives.
37 Brooks, ed., Journal of the Southern Indian Mission, p. 96.
38 Ibid., p. 103.
T. D. Brown to Young, 22 Dec. 1854, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives.
39 Jacob Hamblin, Diary, 1854-57, entry for 21 May 1855 and notations in back of volume, LDS Church Archives.
Brown to Young, 14 April 1855 and 1 April 1856, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives.
40 Brown to Young, 30 May 1856, Brigham Young Papers, LDS Church Archives.
Juanita Brooks, "Indian Relations on the Mormon Frontier," Utah Historical Quarterly 12 (1944): 4-15.
41 Indian Agent George W. Armstrong to Brigham Young, 30 June 1857, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (Washington, D.C.: Gideon and Co., 1857), pp. 308-9.
42 Brooks, "Indian Relations on the Mormon Frontier," pp. 25-48.
Floyd A. O’Neil, "The Utes, Southern Paiutes, and Gosiutes," in Helen Z. Papanikolas, ed., The Peoples of Utah (Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1976), pp. 46-49.
Charles S. Peterson, "Jacob Hamblin, Apostle to the Lamanites, and the Indian Mission," Journal of Mormon History 2 (1975): 21-34.
43 Copies of requisitions for carpeting from each of Salt Lake City’s nineteen wards, 9-10 Dec. 1854, Brigham Young Letterbook 1, pp. 779-788.
Patty Sessions, Diary, 2 Nov.-16 Dec. 1854.
44 Patty Sessions, Diary, 19 Jan. 1855.
45 Minutes of Presiding Bishop’s Meetings with Bishops, 17 Feb. 1857, LDS Church Archives.
46 Cedar City Relief Society Minutes, 1856-75, LDS Church Archives;
Manti Ward Historical Record, 1850-59, LDS Church Archives;
Spanish Fork Ward Relief Society Account Book, 1857-89, LDS Church Archives;
Lucy Meserve Smith, "Historical Narrative," in Kenneth W. Godfrey, Audrey W. Godfrey, and Jill Mulvay Derr, Women’s Voices: An Untold History of the Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book 1982), p. 268;
Brigham City First Ward Relief Society History, 1868-1915, in Brigham City First Ward Relief Society Account Book, 1912-20, LDS Church Archives.
47 Leonard J. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958), pp. 148-56.
48 Lucy Meserve Smith, "Historical Narrative," pp. 269-70.
49 Wells, "History of the Relief Society," p. 7.
50 Cedar City Relief Society Minutes, 2 Nov. 1856.
Linda King Newell, "A Gift Given: A Gift Taken: Washing, Anointing, and Blessing the Sick among Mormon Women," Sunstone 6 (Sept.-Oct. 1981): 16-25.
51 Cedar City Relief Society Minutes, 3 Dec. 1856.
52 Henry W. Naisbitt, " ’Polysophical’ and ’Mutual,’" Improvement Era 2 (1899): 741-47;
Maureen Ursenbach, "Three Women and the Life of the Mind," Utah Historical Quarterly 43 (1975): 28-32;
John Hyde, Mormonism: Its Leaders and Designs, 2nd ed. (New York: W. P. Fetridge & Company, 1857), pp. 128-29.
53 Minutes for 9 Jan. 1859 in Manti Ward Historical Record, 1850-59, LDS Church Archives.
54 Seventies Record, Minutes for 9 March 1845, LDS Church Archives.
55 Ibid.
56 Salt Lake Thirteenth Ward Indian Relief Society Minutes, [7 June 1854].
57 Arlington, From Quaker to Latter-day Saint, pp. 328, 426.
58 Cedar City Relief Society Minutes, 12 March 1856.
Juanita Brooks, The Mountain Meadows Massacre (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962), pp. 15-59.
59 Cedar City Relief Society Minutes, 10 Sept. 1857.
60 Cedar City Relief Society Minutes, 1856-75;
Brigham Young to Rhoda Snell and Adelia S. Richards, [Spanish Fork], 9 Feb. 1861;
61 Eliza R. Snow: An Immortal, pp. 38-49;
[Eliza R. Snow], Brief Sketch of the Organizations conducted by the Latter-day Saint Women of Utah, Salt Lake City, 1880, holograph, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, California: microfilm, LDS Church Archives; Salt Lake City Eighteenth Ward Historical Record, 6 Sept. 1855, LDS Church Archives.
62 Gates, "Relief Society Beginnings in Utah," pp. 191-92.
63 Patty Sessions, Diary, 10 August 1854;
Deser et News, 11 and 18 Jan. 1855;
Samuel W. Richards, Diary, 20 March 1855, LDS Church Archives.
Hyde, Mormonismi pp. 127-28.

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