Excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with reduced cognitive functioning in children and adolescents. The present study was an initial examination of direct and indirect associations between sleep and recall via strategic and nonstrategic memory processes in a sample of 66 participants from grades 1, 3, 5, and college. Stimuli varied in familiarity and presence of a strategy prompt. Strategy use during encoding and during recall were measured separately. The present study predicted that alertness would be associated with both strategic and nonstrategic factors related to memory, alertness would predict recall indirectly via strategic and nonstrategic factors (controlling for grade and gender), and this indirect path would be moderated by grade. The first 2 hypotheses were partially supported; the third was not. Self-reported alertness associated weakly with speed of tapping and with strategy use during encoding on the first trial (familiar words, no strategy cue). Analysis indicated an indirect effect via strategy use during encoding on Trial 1 but via speed of tapping on Trial 3. Tests of moderated mediation were not significant on any trial, indicating that the indirect pathways were not moderated by grade. Alertness may influence recall via strategic or nonstrategic processes, and its role may depend on familiarity and availability of strategy cues. Several proposed research directions are suggested for future exploration.