Personality psychology has recognized a fundamental 5-factor structure that has integrated and organized theory and research. Nevertheless, personality-like differences beyond that structure have been identified. In heretofore unrelated research, dispositional empathy has been an essential construct in understanding human development, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Addressing a gap in the literature, we map multidimensional dispositional empathy into 2 versions of the 5-factor space. Empathic concern is closely related to agreeableness, and personal distress is closely related to neuroticism. Perspective taking has complex, interstitial relationships with the 5 factors. In contrast, fantasy is not well explained by the 5 factors. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding dispositional empathy and for understanding the 5-factor structure, its correlates in emotional processes and experiences, and its limits.

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