We investigated the effect of level-of-processing manipulations on “remember” and “know” responses in episodic melody recognition (Experiments 1 and 2) and how this effect is modulated by item familiarity (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants performed 2 conceptual and 2 perceptual orienting tasks while listening to familiar melodies: judging the mood, continuing the tune, tracing the pitch contour, and counting long notes. The conceptual mood task led to higher d’ rates for “remember” but not “know” responses. In Experiment 2, participants either judged the mood or counted long notes of tunes with high and low familiarity. A level-of-processing effect emerged again in participants’ “remember” d’ rates regardless of melody familiarity. Results are discussed within the distinctive processing framework.

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