We used the repetition blindness (RB) paradigm to examine the roles of semantics, phonology, and orthography on report from rapidly presented 5-item word lists. Semantic primes in positions 1 and 3 in the list preceded homographic homophones, homographic heterophones, and heterographic homophones as critical targets in positions 2 and 4. All codes (i.e., semantic, phonologic, and orthographic) were repeated, or meaning changed while only phonology, only orthography, or both were repeated for the critical targets. Using a scoring procedure that considered order of report, we assessed facilitation for report of the first instance of the repeated target (a novel aspect of our procedure) and RB for report of the second instance of the repeated target. Except when accompanied by a change in orthography, a change in meaning reduced RB relative to when all codes were repeated. Facilitation in the report of the first instance of the repeated item occurred only if meaning changed and phonology was repeated (independent of whether orthography changed). Finally, recall was worse for the meaning change nonrepeated control lists (which instantiated 3 unrelated meanings in the list, including the last unrelated item) than for the no-meaning change control lists (which instantiated 2 unrelated meanings). We discuss the relevance of these findings for extant accounts of repetition blindness.

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