are cognate adverbs that are are often translated alike (“truly,” “really,” or “indeed”). While they may be semantically alike, they are used differently. אָמְנָה marks an assertion of fact supported by proof. אָמְנָם is a conversational device expressing opinion or argumentation; it also is used to register agreement or a premise that will be developed or modified further along. אֻמְנָם is also a conversational device but occurs only in strong rhetorical questions. It too does not address fact but questions or strongly doubts a prior assertion, inference, or conversational situation. In other words, the differences among have interpretive value.

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