The purpose of this article is to highlight the variety of functions that quotations perform in Paul’s argumentation in light of two modern theories on quoting. First, psycholinguists Herbert Clark and Richard Gerrig’s Demonstration Theory describes various functions a quotation may perform in a discourse. Second, the Proteus Principle of Meir Sternberg sheds light on the process of recontextualizing quotations, which serves as a starting point for analyzing Paul’s strategies in integrating quotations into his own argumentation. Both theories can be illustrated by textual examples from Rom 9–11, and they bring conceptual clarity to recent debates about Paul’s use of Scripture. The final section addresses questions that arise when modern theories are applied to ancient texts and discusses the relevance of such approaches for the study of Paul’s argumentation.

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