In an article in this journal, Christopher B. Hays argued that Nebuchadnezzar's affliction is best understood in the context of netherworld imagery (“Chirps from the Dust: The Afflictions of Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel 4:30 in Its Ancient Near Eastern Context,” JBL 126 : 305–25). On the other hand, Matthias Henze believes that Nebuchadnezzar's affliction follows the trope of the uncivilized man akin to Enkidu in the Epic of Gilgamesh (The Madness of King Nebuchadnezzar ). Hays appealed to the supposed lack of evidence that such a primal status could result from the curse of a deity. But magico-medical Mesopotamian texts known as the dingir.šà.dib.ba incantations do provide clear evidence that a primal earthly status could result from a divine curse. Accordingly, those texts support Henze's interpretation while validating Hays's argument that Mesopotamian prayer genres can illuminate Daniel 4.