The article explores the American views concerning the progressive wing of the Brazilian Catholic Church during the first years of military dictatorship. It focuses on the case of Bishop Hélder Câmara as perceived by the diplomatic service during the 1964–72 years. It deals with the American perception regarding this religious leader in relation to Church-state relations, his ideological postures, the 1969 murder of his colleague Father Henrique Pereira Neto, political alterations at the end of the 1960s, and his international relevance. The article reveals the aversion of the diplomatic service toward Dom Hélder due to the ideological framework of National Security Doctrine. It also shows variations in the American view regarding the bishop as a consequence of political transitions in 1969–70.