This article presents results of a systematic review of the conceptual and empirical literature published in the area of environmentally sustainable freight transportation (ESFT) since 1990. The research has been largely atheoretical and descriptive, though that has begun to change with the dramatic growth in this literature since 2010. The literature to date provides interesting insights into the way that ESFT practice has evolved. Following an input–transformation–output model, the topical focus of the research began with an emphasis on transformation processes or activities, and then considered inputs (represented by drivers/facilitators), barriers as moderators of the process, and outcomes of practice, or outputs. This article provides extensive suggestions for future research in each of the topical areas to help fill some of the gaps in theory and to enhance practice.