Post-oppositional pedagogies developed by feminist, womanist, and social-justice theorists get beyond the limits and binaries of oppositional pedagogies to transform either/or thinking into the acceptance of multiplicity, contradiction, and paradox. Oppositional pedagogical frameworks employ dichotomous either/or epistemologies and generate us-against-them dynamics that pit one person, one group, or one “Truth” against another, and invite antagonism. Post-oppositional frameworks include invitational pedagogies, which introduce students to a wide range of additional perspectives and invite students to self-reflect on their existing beliefs and other dimensions of their worldviews, to examine them from additional points of view.

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