This essay examines theological responses to the hardening of Pharaoh's heart on the part of Christian and Jewish readers from the patristic period through the Reformation. Readings discussed include those of Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, Augustine, the Midrash Rabbah, Rambam, and Martin Luther. The concluding section draws on the history of interpretation to suggest ways in which the theological interpreter of our own day might make sense of the portrayal of God as hardening "the heart of whomever he chooses." Included in the discussion are the relative contributions of source-critical analysis of Exod 7–11.

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