Mann's passion for Schiller led him to meditate on the political meaning of Don Carlos. He extends Schiller's portrayal of Spanish oppression, represented in his novel by the Jesuit Leo Naphta, to include the other reactionary extreme of Europe: Russia and, by extension, Asia. The Wagnerian litmotiv of the Spanish ruff is associated with both Hans' German grandfather and with Spain: with Philip II, the Escorial palace and the Inquisition as well as with the Jesuit order founded in sixteenth-century Spain by Ignatius Loyola and the spilling of blood through state-sponsored torture.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.