Co-reference refers to the way in which literary characters are established and maintained within the active register of the text world. If the first co-reference choice serves to establish part of a character network of about seven or eight “control centres” for subsequent plot elaboration, settled co-reference choice maintains that character within the active register of the narrative discourse. In James Joyce's Dubliners (1914), the stories divide up into a large set that employs stable co-reference and a smaller set of narratives that utilize marked choices as part of their aesthetic designs of secrecy and revelation.

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