One of the key texts used to validate the supersessionist reading of Paul is Rom 9:6b: “For not all Israelites truly belong to Israel.” That reading was challenged in 2004 by Klaus Wengst, who proposed that Rom 9:6b should be read as a rhetorical question: “Are not all out of Israel, even Israel?” The affirmation that “all Israel” is Israel is completely consistent with Rom 9:4–5 and fully coherent with Rom 9:7–13 read as the genealogy of Jacob/Israel as children/sons of God. Wengst’s proposal avoids all the interpretive difficulties and incoherence of the traditional reading of 9:6b, which sees an “Israel” within Israel. Wengst’s reading transfers 9:6b from the supersessionist side to the post-supersessionist side of the debate, with significant implications for the interpretation of Romans and Paul’s theology of Israel and the gentiles. Yet Wengst’s reading has remained virtually unknown within the English-speaking theological community. The purpose of this essay is to make Wengst’s reading better known by presenting a summary of Wengst’s reading, adducing additional supporting arguments, and proposing a fresh post-supersessionist translation of the key verses 9:6–8.

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