Affirmation is a central concept in Gilles Deleuze's philosophical work. Alongside Friedrich Nietzsche, he considers its fundamental promise to be that of overcoming nihilism, or the triumph of reactive forces. In this article, I analyze Deleuze's notion of affirmation to identify criteria for affirmative philosophical thinking. Specifically, I argue that Deleuze's notions of “problems” and “questions” correspond to an ethics of learning. Affirmative philosophical thinking is accordingly a project of infinite learning that exceeds, or moves beyond, reactive types of thought. Following this, I experiment with an affirmative political philosophical concept of revolution.

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