The election of Donald Trump has brought the “Jewish Question” back onto the intellectual agenda in a way that it has not been for decades. As a term, the “Jewish Question” was first employed in the nineteenth century during debates about the conversion and emancipation of Jews and has subsequently been used to describe the vexed relationship between Jewishness and the dominant social formations of the modern world—whether Christianity, Europe, the West, the nation-state, Enlightenment, or “the people.” In other words, the “Jewish Question” named, and names, a fundamental and unstable self-other relationship that is central to the production of both Jewish and non-Jewish identities in modernity. As David Nirenberg puts it in a discussion of Marx’s controversial “On the Jewish Question,” “the ‘Jewish question’ is as much about the basic tools and concepts through which individuals in society relate to the world and to each other, as it is...

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