Invoking Angels is the follow-up volume to Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of Medieval Ritual Magic, edited by Claire Fanger and published in 1998 by Pennsylvania State University Press. At the time of its publication Conjuring Spirits answered a need in scholarship for a serious work on medieval ritual magic. It was—and is—an important work that brought to light various issues in the idea of ritual magic and its status in later medieval Europe. Its aims—to bring these issues and new texts to broader attention—served, in essence, as the foundation for the chapters that appear in Invoking Angels. In this new volume Fanger and the other contributors have shifted the conversation to focus on angelic magic, or more accurately, theurgy. As Fanger notes in her introduction, the use of the term has a long and complex history. Even within this volume its connotations can change from chapter to...

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