The Great Migration, which drew multiple thousands of African Americans away from the agricultural South into the industrial Northeast and Midwest during World War I and the 1920s, stirred resentment and violent reactions from northern whites. Fear of employment competition, encroachments into previously segregated neighborhoods, and raw racial animus stirred police and mob violence, hostile municipal policies, and other threatening acts to end the Black exodus out from the former Confederacy. Though anti-Black race riots in East St. Louis, Illinois in 1917, Chicago in 1919, and Tulsa in 1921 are familiar to scholars, the expulsion of hundreds of Blacks from Johnstown, Pennsylvania, in 1923 is little known. Contemporary observers placed Johnstown in the pantheon of racially offensive municipalities where African Americans were under siege and driven from their newly established residences and workplaces. In real time, Marcus Garvey, the leader of the black nationalist Universal Negro Improvement Association, told an...

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