On September 10, 1897, a few hundred striking coal miners from the Hazleton area in Northeast Pennsylvania were marching down a public road just outside the small village of Lattimer when they encountered about 150 well-armed members of a sheriff's posse who sought to block their entrance to the town. The miners were unarmed, mostly recent immigrants, but they carried an American flag to invoke their democratic rights to demand better conditions. They hoped to convince their fellow miners in Lattimer to join their strike. When the sheriff tried to seize their flag, the miners resisted. And then, apparently in response to an order from the sheriff, the posse members lined up along the road started firing their guns into marchers, continuing to shoot as the men fled. Nineteen miners were killed and about forty more were wounded. In a matter of a few minutes, the bend of dirt road...

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