Barrier islands are valuable models for evolutionary and conservation biology studies. Since 2010, we have investigated the herpetofauna of Wallops Island, Virginia, 25 years after a seminal study. We used combinations of taxon-specific field techniques to maximize accuracy. A total of four species of amphibians and seven species of reptiles were identified. The most abundant amphibian and reptile were Fowler’s toad (Anaxyrus fowleri) and the North American racer (Coluber constrictor), respectively. We report three previously undetected amphibians and the likely prior misidentification of another. We also identified a new snake species. The diamond-backed terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) is only seasonally abundant on the island, in contrast to the year-round well-established Eastern mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum), while only a few juveniles of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were detected. No lizards were found in the island. These limited yet interesting herpetofauna face momentous environmental challenges derived from global climate change and rising sea level.

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