Ectomycorrhizal fungi are key ecological components of forest communities, given the host benefits they provide. Biotic factors that alter ectomycorrhizal–host interactions, such as pests, have been well studied. The effects of other biotic factors, such as allelopathy and pathogens, deserve more attention. Studies have reported reduced ectomycorrhizal colonization on hosts in response to allelopathy from garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata [M. Bieb.]), an invasive herb in North American forests. Since A. petiolata allelopathy affects ectomycorrhizal associations with many hosts, such as Quercus species, such impacts are of interest. This study examined A. petiolata allelopathic effects on ectomycorrhizal fungi from northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) hosts, and specifically how A. petiolata density and exudates affect colonization and richness on this host. Results found that A. petiolata presence and exudates reduced both colonization and richness.

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