Soon after parts of the Unitas Fratrum emigrated to Poland in the years following the Schmalkaldic War (1546–47), the Brethren received much attention because of their church discipline. This fascination even led to first unions of the protestant churches in Poland. At the very beginning of the history of the Polish Reformation, the Calvinists from Lesser Poland decided to join the Brethren. This agreement was signed in Koźminek in 1555. Just after a couple of months, however, it was not valid anymore. A second attempt was made in 1570 in Sandomierz, where the Brethren joined the Lutherans and the Reformed and accepted the Reformed Confession of Faith. This union—though seemingly spectacular—did not have any consequences either. The status of the protestant confessions was secured by the religious peace called Warsaw Confederation in 1573. The Brethren remained one of three protestant confessions, which were officially recognized in Poland. This essay examines the transition of the image of the Brethren in the eyes of the Polish nobility from a radical and marginal religious group to one of the main churches and important players in the political arena.

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