All the Crusades of the first half of the thirteenth century have Frederick II as protagonist, the actor who was always ready to play a role even when absent. In these roles, he was successively the emperor of the Last Times of the First Crusade of Damietta managed by the legate Pelage and by King John of Brienne, the humble pilgrim of the Crusade of Jaffa who became known as the new King Solomon, the director of the Crusade of Ascalon managed by the faithful Theobald of Champagne and by his brother-in-law Richard of Cornwall, and the partner of the Second Crusade of Damietta sought by Saint Louis, even if he was depicted as the antichrist by the pope. This article deals with the relationships between the sovereign and the chiefs of the other crusading expeditions held before and after the First Crusade of Damietta.

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