In this issue, four scholars working in a broad range of fields offer four different views on warfare as an agent of change in the Mediterranean region. Marcello Pacifico, renowned author of works that argue for Frederick II as a man of two worlds, considers what the history of the thirteenth-century Crusades is, and what that history could have been if the man known as Stupor mundi had won his battle for a realm where two faiths coexisted in peace.

In his detailed three-part history of mayorazgo, Andrew Villalon devotes an entire section to the role of warfare in the proliferation of this Spanish institution that originated in the thirteenth century to address the management of the inheritance of property. Late fourteenth-century conflict would ultimately force a confrontation between the Spanish Crown and the elite, resulting in a change in how landed nobility maintained a hold on inherited properties....

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