Was there such a thing as a Mediterranean identity in antiquity? And if so, how are we to define it? This article addresses these questions, focusing on maritime-based religious associations within Mediterranean societies and how these associations developed over time. Through an examination of the maritime, climatic, and geographical aspects of the human experience during the Hellenistic period, it is possible to evaluate the nature of Mediterranean deities and their common features across boundary lines of locality, nationality, ethnicity, and culture. The emerging picture suggests that the cross-cultural dimension of Mediterranean deities allows for the existence of a superordinate identity that may best be described as Mediterranean.

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