This paper explores the work of artist Walter Frances Brown (1853–1929), a primary illustrator for Mark Twain's A Tramp Abroad (1880). Examining Brown's work from the start of his career through A Tramp Abroad reveals parallels in the careers of both men. Brown and Twain shared a regard for irreverence of expression, even when subject to higher authorities of taste and propriety. Both men also relished an inside joke, or personal reference, in their media. Expanding on Beverly David's research, this paper examines the greater context of Brown's contribution to A Tramp Abroad, revealing the precedent of artistic allusion within examples of his illustration.

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