Langston Hughes developed strong ties with Spain, after he spent several months there in 1937 covering the civil war. However, his legacy in that country has never been throroughly examined. This article provides a chronological analysis of how Hughes was translated in Spain between 1930 and 1975, a period in which his reputation notably differed, often for extra-literary reasons. Critical scrutiny will focus both on well-known translations and on others here discussed for the first time, with the aim of exploring Hughes's presence in the Spanish literary system. Attention will be paid to the identity of those translators who made his work available to Spanish readers. Reconstructing the translation history of Langston Hughes should not only illuminate the reception of African American literature and culture in Spain, but also contribute to assessing his legacy in a wider international context.