The paper presents the concept of 'program theory' as a way of conceptualizing key factors, presumably contributing to success, of a language program. It then considers two possible systemic structures advanced historically and eventually introduced into the literature of language teaching, that could be drawn on in conceptualizing or searching for program theory: open systems theory and activity theory. Finally, a pilot investigation underway of the Korean Language Flagship program is briefly and partially reported, which suggests a number of putative key features contributing to the program's success.

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