In The Enthymeme: Syllogism, Reasoning, and Narrative in Ancient Greek Rhetoric, James Fredal challenges the contemporary conception of the enthymeme by tracing the concept’s roots to legal “narratives set in adversarial juxtaposition” (4) in ancient oratory. Following the use of the verb enthymeomai in ancient speeches, he posits that orators like Lysias used “enthymizing” to bring presence to persuasive narrative details. Fredal calls this original form of the enthymeme version “1.0” (11), and he notes that enthymizing is not reducible to a “linguistic or logical structure” (89). Fredal writes that Aristotle’s later description of the enthymeme, which he terms version “2.0,” erroneously takes a dialectical turn; the concept is disconnected from its narrative origin and becomes an “instance” of the syllogism (63). He argues that misreading and mistranslation of Aristotle’s already-incorrect conception of the enthymeme led to version “3.0,” the “modern audience-added, missing-piece argument” (14), which has, he claims,...

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