This essay continues a dialogue of many years between Eugene Borowitz and the author over the meaning of Covenant in Jewish theology today. The main point of difference between them is whether it is necessary theologically to literally affirm the Bible's representation of the God who speaks (i.e., the doctrine of verbal revelation). Following Buber, Rosenzweig, and Heschel, Borowitz only affirms a nonverbal revelation: it is the human recipients of God's revelation who supply its verbal content. The author argues that this gives too much authority to human autonomy. Nevertheless, he recognizes that Borowitz has taught him to emphasize human autonomy in his own covenantal theology more than he had done theretofore.

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