The article examines changes in metalworking tools during the second and early first millennia BCE as a reflection of broader cultural and political developments. It is assumed that producers who consistently choose a similar set of production actions belong to the same social and cultural group, and that technological choices are notoriously conservative. Therefore, changes in these choices are significant and could reflect broader societal developments, such as migrations and increasing political control. Based on the development or changes in the components of the metalworking tool kit of crucibles, pot bellows, and tyères, I identify several such changes or turning points, particularly during the transitions from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age I to Iron Age IIA. I argue that while changes during the former transition reflect the influx of foreigners, changes during the latter transition are also due to considerable internal political change.

You do not currently have access to this content.