ABSTRACT

Smar Jbeil is a medieval stronghold built during the Crusader period. A feudal mountain castle belonging to the barony of Boutron (Batrun), it was part of the Crusader county of Tripoli. The castle witnessed three consecutive phases of construction. The first phase is dated to the first quarter of the twelfth century AD. The barbican was built in third phase of construction, and its architectural elements date to the beginning of the second half of the twelfth century AD. This typical mountain fortress acted as a military observation post, controlling the settlements and sites of the inner countryside.

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