ABSTRACT

Throughout history, ceramic building material (CBM), such as bricks, tiles, and hypocaust tiles, along with decorative elements, have been of immense significance. To determine the mineralogical content, chemical composition, and physical property of such materials, as well as pottery sherds, excavated from the archaeological site of Khirbet Edh-Dharih in southern Jordan, a range of analytical techniques that include petrography, XRD, AAS, and SEM-EDX were utilized. The findings indicate that during the periods studied the potters followed the tradition of sourcing local raw materials and utilized relatively advanced manufacturing techniques. However, the late Byzantine–early Umayyad potters deviated from this norm by blending noncalcareous clay with coarsely crushed quartz in higher proportions and firing them at elevated temperatures. This resulted in a clay with a lower water absorption capacity, lower porosity, and higher bulk density, thus improving its durability.

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