The article argues that there is one Phoenician religion and one Phoenician pantheon in spite of the fact that there was no such thing as a Phoenician “state” or “nation.” It also argues that in the absence of Phoenician religious texts the archaeological evidence can partly fill the gap left by this absence. As a case study for the contribution of archaeological discoveries to the understanding of Phoenician religion, the article presents the cult sites with standing stones that were recently exposed at the site of Tell el-Burak, south of Sidon. This aspect of Phoenician religion is not attested in the contemporary written record and was discovered for the first time at this archaeological site. The article discusses its origin and transmission, and suggests that it may have reached Phoenicia through trade and may have been associated with local industries.

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