ABSTRACT

In 2021, a revised and updated version of 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed was published, in order to include all the new data that had appeared in the intervening seven years. As noted there, we now have additional evidence for drought and climate change around 1200 BCE, in regions stretching from Italy and Greece to Egypt, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Iran. There is also new textual evidence for both famine and invaders in Ugarit immediately prior to its destruction. As outlined in this essay, taken from arguments in the revised edition, I continue to believe that there was no single “smoking gun” that can explain the upheaval that ended the Bronze Age and that it took a “perfect storm” of catastrophes to bring the era to an end in these regions.

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