First discovered in 1860, the monumental structure at Qazion and its late second-century CE Greek dedicatory inscription by Galilean Jews have been a focal point of scholarly debate. Did this building serve as a synagogue for the local community or was it a Roman temple constructed by Jews to honor Septimius Severus and his family? This article presents the results of the Hachlili and Killebrew archaeological survey of the Qazion cultic complex and a new interpretation of this site located on the border of Jewish and pagan Galilee.

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