Abstract

Technological convergence is remaking and even erasing the borders between industries once considered separate, and is forcing policymakers to evolve new regulatory frameworks for a rapidly changing industrial environment. Using the advocacy coalition framework, the authors investigate a struggle by Flemish broadcasters against video distributors to protect the integrity of their broadcast signals. The authors argue that the case may be an indicator of the struggles to come as the television space struggles with convergence, with implications for the European Union and other regions.

The text of this article is only available as a PDF.

Bibliography

“Aantal klanten groeit bij belgacom; omzet en winst daalde.”
ADSL and Breedband, Mar. 5,
2012
. Accessed Sept. 1, 2014, http://www.adsl-breedband.be/actualiteiten/aantal-klanten-groeit-bij-belgacom-omzet-winst-daalde
Brevini, Benadetta.
Public Service
Basingstoke, UK
:
Palgrave Macmillan
,
2013
.
Cammaerts, Bart and Nico Carpentier, eds.
Reclaiming the Media: Communication Rights and Democratic Media Roles
.
Bristol, UK
:
Intellect
,
2007
.
Collins, Richard.
“Hierarchy to Homeostasis? Hierarchy, Markets and Networks in UK Media and Communications Governance.”
Media Culture & Society
30
(
2008
):
295
317
.
d'Haenens, Leen, Frédéric Antoine, and Frieda Saeys.
“Belgium: Two Communities with Diverging Views on How to Manage Media Diversity.”
International Communication Gazette
71
(
2008
):
51
66
.
d'Haenens, Leen and Susan Brink.
“Digital Convergence: The Development of a New Media Market in Europe.”
In
Western Broadcasting at the Dawn of the 21st Century
, edited by Leen d'Haenens and Frieda Saeys,
125
145
.
Berlin/New York
:
Mouton de Gruyter
,
2001
.
de Bens, Els.
“Media between Culture and Commerce: An Introduction.”
In
Media between Culture and Commerce
, edited by Els de Bens,
9
24
.
Bristol, UK
:
Intellect
,
2004
.
de Sola Pool, Ithiel.
Technologies of Freedom. On Free Speech in an Electronic Age
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
,
1983
.
Doyle, Gilian.
Media Ownership
.
London
:
Sage
,
2002
.
European Parliament, Committee on Culture and Education
.
“Draft Report on Connected TV.”
Report, Jan, 13,
2013
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML%2BCOMPARL%2BPE-504.075%2B01%2BDOC%2BPDF%2BV0//EN.
Evens, Tom and Karen Donders.
“Broadcast Market Structures and Retransmission Payments: A European Perspective.”
Media Culture & Society
35
(
2013
):
417
434
.
Fagerjord, Anders and Tanja Storsul.
“Questioning Convergence.”
In
Ambivalence towards Convergence: Digitalization and Media Change
, edited by Tanja Storsul and Dagny Stuedahl,
19
31
.
Göteborg, Sweden
:
Nordicom
,
2007
.
Filmby Aarhus, Alexandra Institute, and High Tech Accelerator Innovation Centre of the University of Lodz Foundation
.
“Report On Business Models, Value Chains and Business Development Services in the Audiovisual/Creative Industries: Cases of the Łódź and Małopolska Provinces and West Denmark.”
Report,
First Motion and the European Regional Development Fund
, July
2011
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.firstmotion.eu/art/MediaCenter/FirstMotion/Results%20and%20Outcomes/BusinessModelsValueChains_DK_Poland.pdf.
Freedman, Des.
“How Level is the Playing Field? An Analysis of the UK Media Policy-Making Process.”
Report,
Economic and Social Research Council
, Sept.
2005
. Accessed Sept. 1, 2014, https://www.gold.ac.uk/media/media-report.pdf.
Freedman, Des.
The Politics of Media Policy
.
Cambridge, UK
:
Polity Press
,
2008
.
Galperin, Herman.
New Television, Old Politics: The Transition to Digital TV in the United States and Britain
.
Cambridge, UK
:
Cambridge University Press
,
2004
.
Gibbons, Thomas and Peter Humphreys.
Audiovisual Regulation under Pressure: Comparative Cases from North America and Europe
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2012
.
Guerrieri, Paolo, P. Lelio Iapadre, and Georg Koopmann, eds.
Cultural Diversity and International Economic Integration: The Global Governance of the Audio-Visual Sector
.
Cheltenham, UK
:
Edward Elgar
,
2005
.
Hartley, John.
“The ‘Value Chain of Meaning’ and the New Economy.”
International Journal of Cultural Studies
7
(
2003
):
129
141
.
Hendriks, Patrick.
“Communications Policy and Industrial Dynamics in Media Markets: Toward a Theoretical Framework for Analyzing Media Industry Organization.”
Journal of Media Economics
8
(
1995
):
61
76
.
Herkman, Juha.
“Introduction: Intermediality as a Theory and Methodology.”
In
Intermediality and Media Change
, edited by Juha Herkman, Taisto Hujanen, and Paavo Oinonen,
10
27
.
Tampere, Finland
:
Tampere University Press
,
2012
.
“Het geld van televisiekijkend Vlaanderen.”
Blog post, Apache.be, Apr. 25, 2013. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.apache.be/2013/04/25/het-geld-van-televisiekijkend-vlaanderen/.
Humphreys, Peter.
Mass Media and Media Policy in Western Europe
.
Manchester, UK
:
Manchester University Press
,
1996
.
Iosifidis, Petros.
“DTT and the Role of PSBs in Driving Digital Switchover.”
Paper presented at the RIPE (Re-Visionary Interpretations of the Public Enterprise) conference, Amsterdam, Nov.
2006
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://ripeat.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Iosifidis.pdf.
Jenkins, Henry.
“The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence.”
International Journal of Cultural Studies
7
(
2004
):
33
43
.
Jin, Dal Yong.
De-Convergence of Global Media Industries
.
New York
:
Routledge
,
2013
.
“Liberty Global neemt heft in handen bij Telenet.”
De Standaard
, Mar. 5, 2013. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20130305_012.
Lowe, Gregory Ferrell, Christian E. Berg, and Christian S. Nissen.
“Size Matters for TV Broadcasting Policy.”
In
Small Among Giants: Television Broadcasting in Smaller Countries
, edited by Gregory Ferrell Lowe and Christian S. Nissen,
21
41
.
Göteborg, Sweden
:
Nordicom
,
2011
.
McQuail, Denis and Karen Siune, eds.
Media Policy: Convergence, Concentration and Commerce
.
London
:
Sage
,
1998
.
Østergaard, Bernt Stubbe.
“Convergence: Legislative Dilemmas.”
In
Media Policy: Convergence, Concentration and Commerce
, edited by Denis McQuail and Karen Siune,
95
107
.
London
:
Sage
,
1998
.
Papadopoulos, Yiannis.
“Problems of Democratic Accountability in Network and Multilevel Governance.”
European Law Journal
13
(
2007
):
469
496
.
Raad van State afdeling Wetgeving [Belgium]
.
Advies voorstel van decreet houdende wijziging van het decreet van 27 maart 2009 betreffende radio-omroep en televisie
. Advies 52.043/3, Oct. 9,
2012
. Accessed Sept. 1, 2014, http://docs.vlaamsparlement.be/docs/stukken/2011-2012/g1703-2.pdf.
“Reclame doorspoelen wordt betalend.”
Het Laatste Nieuws
, Apr. 16, 2013. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.hln.be/hln/nl/943/Consument/article/detail/1616095/2013/04/16/Reclame-doorspoelen-wordt-betalend.dhtml.
Sabatier, Paul A. and Hank C. Jenkins-Smith, eds.
Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach
.
Boulder, CO
:
Westview Press
,
1993
.
Salaets, Benny.
“Het digicorder debat: de return van het kijk- en luistergeld, de bettwistbare bestemming ervan en een uitweg.”
Blog post, Apr. 19,
2013
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://bennysalaets.wordpress.com/2013/04/19/het-digicorder-debat-de-return-van-het-kijk-en-luistergeld-de-betwistbare-bestemming-ervan-en-een-uitweg/.
Sampson, Tony and Jairo Lugo.
“The Discourse of Convergence: A Neo-Liberal Trojan Horse.”
In
Broadcasting and Convergence: New Articulations of the Public Service Remit
, edited by Gregory Ferrell Lowe and Taisto Hujanen,
83
92
.
Göteborg, Sweden
:
Nordicom
,
2003
.
SARC (Strategische Adviesraad voor Cultuur, jeugd, sport en media)
.
Advies voorstel van decreet houdende wijziging van het decreet van 27 maart 2009 betreffende radio-omroep en televisie
. Regulatory document, Brussels, Jan. 28,
2013
.
Sinclair, John.
“Globalization, Supranational Institutions and Media.”
In
The Sage Handbook of Media Studies
, edited by John H. Downing,
65
82
.
London
:
Sage
,
2004
.
Storsul, Tanja and Dagny Stuedahl, eds.
Ambivalence towards Convergence: Digitalization and Media Change
.
Göteborg, Sweden
:
Nordicom
,
2007
.
Sutton, Rebecca.
“The Policy Process: An Overview.”
Working Paper 118,
Overseas Development Institute
, Aug.
1999
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/2535.pdf.
“Telenet investeert fors in De Vijver Media.”
De Standaard
, June 17,
2014
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20140617_01143768.
“Telenet overweegt gerichte advertenties via digitale tv.”
DeMorgen
, Apr. 25,
2013
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.demorgen.be/dm/nl/5401/Multimedia/article/detail/1621951/2013/04/25/Telenet-overweegt-gerichte-advertenties-via-digitale-tv.dhtml.
“Telenet trekt naar de rechter over decreet uitgesteld kijken.”
De Standaard
, Feb. 17,
2014
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://www.standaard.be/cnt/dmf20140217_00983661.
Thompson, John.
The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media
.
London
:
Blackwell
,
1995
.
United Kingdom, High Court of Justice
.
Judgment of the Court
(Fourth Chamber), decision in Case C-607/11, Mar. 7,
2013
. Accessed Sept. 15, 2014, http://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document.jsf?text=&docid=134604&pageIndex=0&doclang=EN&mode=req&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=161892.
Van den Bulck, Hilde.
“Can PSB Stake Its Claim in a Media World of Digital Convergence? The Case of the Flemish PSB Management Contract Renewal.”
Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies
14
(
2008
):
335
350
.
Van den Bulck, Hilde.
“Tracing Media Policy Decisions: Of Stakeholders, Networks and Advocacy Coalitions.”
In
Routledge Handbook of Media Law
, edited by Monroe E. Price, Stefaan Verhulst, and Libby Morgan,
17
34
.
London
:
Routledge
,
2012
.
Van den Bulck, Hilde and Karen Donders.
“Of Discourses, Stakeholders and Advocacy Coalitions in Media Policy: Tracing Negotiations towards the New Management Contract of Flemish Public Broadcaster VRT.”
European Journal of Communication
29
(
2014
):
83
99
.
Van Poucke, Sara.
“Bhaalu mag zijn activiteiten voortzetten,”
De Redactie
, July 8,
2014
. Accessed Sept. 2, 2014, http://deredactie.be/cm/vrtnieuws/cultuur%2Ben%2Bmedia/media/1.2026708.
Vlaams Parlement [Flanders]
.
Voorstel van decreet van de heren Ludwig Caluwé, Bart Van Malderen, Kris Van Dijck en Philippe De Coene houdende wijziging van het decreet van 27 maart 2009 betreffende radio-omroep en televisie
. Stuk 1703 (2011-2012), Nr.1 (July 4,
2012
).

Author notes

*

Professor of Communication Studies and Dean of Political and Social Sciences Faculty, University of Antwerp; Visiting Professor, University of Bergen.

Professor of Communication Studies, Free University of Brussels.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.