What will students learn? Which instructional strategies work best and have the greatest effect on student achievement? How can these strategies be implemented in the classroom to help students acquire and integrate their learning? Which strategies will help students practice, review, and apply their learning? These are the four questions addressed in the book Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement (2001) by Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, and Jane Pollock. Teachers across the country have been using Marzano's research effectively for aligning their curriculum, instruction, and assessment since its publication.

Marzano identifies nine instructional strategies, in order of their effectiveness, that have a high probability of enhancing student achievement for all students in all grades and in all subject areas. These nine instructional strategies are (1) identifying similarities and differences; (2) summarizing and note taking; (3) reinforcing effort and providing recognition; (4) homework and practice;...

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